By: Patrick PalomaresEtruscan Architecture
ETRUSCANSWho are the Etruscans?
ETRUSCANSThe Etruscan civilization is a powerful, wealthy and refined civilization of ancient Italy.
ETRUSCANSThe ancient Romans referred to the Etruscans as the Tusci or Etrusci
LOCATIONFound roughly around western Umbria, and northern Lazio in Italy
Climatehas cool, rainy winters and hot, dry summers.The coast and valleys tend to have hotter summers than the hills or mountains although the coast benefits from breezes off the sea for cooler temperatures.
ETRUSCAN CULTUREGOVERNMENTThe Etruscan state government was essentially a theocracy. The government was viewed as being a central authority, ruling over all tribal and clan organizations. It retained the power of life and death; in fact, the gorgon, an ancient symbol of that power, appears as a motif in Etruscan decoration. (gorgon picture)
ETRUSCAN CULTUREFAMILYEvidence shows that families were interred there over long periods, marking the growth of the aristocratic family as a fixed institutionThe Etruscans were a monogamous society that emphasized pairing. (Pen + Pineapple)
ETRUSCAN CULTUREWOMENEtruscan Women's rights were very much like modern women's rights. They were given actual names. They raised their own children. They knew how to read and write and could sit in the same table as their husband. Etruscan women were frowned upon by other civilizations
The Etruscan system of belief was an immanent polytheism; that is, all visible phenomena were considered to be manifestations of divine powerPower was embodied in deities who acted continually on the world but could be dissuaded or persuaded by mortal men.
Catha (GODDESS OF THE moon)
Usil (GOD OF THE Sun)
TURAN (GODDESS OF LOVE)
LARAN (GOD OF WAR)
ETRUSCAN MYTHOLOGYThe Etruscans believed their religion had been revealed to them by seers, the two main ones being:
Tages - a childlike figure born from tilled land who was immediately gifted with prescience
Vegoia - a female figure.
TAGES AND VEGOIA
AfterlifeThe Etruscans shared general early Mediterranean beliefs, such as the Egyptian belief that survival and prosperity in the hereafter depend on the treatment of the deceased's remains.
AFTERLIFEEtruscan tombs imitated domestic structures and were characterized by spacious chambers, wall paintings and grave furniture.
In the tomb, especially on the sarcophagus, was a representation of the deceased in his or her prime, often with a spouse.
TUSCAN ORDERTuscan order, the simplest of the five orders of Classical Roman architecture, which were codified in the Renaissance. It resembles the Doric order but has a simpler base and an unadorned frieze.
ETRUSCAN ARCHITECTUREThe Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, which was on the Capitoline Hill in Rome, is among the best known Tuscan style temples.
The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
VAULT ARCHITECTUREVault is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.
was used both by Etruscans and Romans.
VAULTSThe key element for building an arch is the solidity of its side walls which have to withstand the pressure discharged by the keystone through the voussoirs to the springers.
Tombs and TumuliRich Etruscans left elaborate tombs, mostly gathered in large necropoli some way outside their cities. These were generously filled with grave goods, especially ceramics, which give us most of our understanding of Etruscan culture
TOMBS AND TUMULIthe burial chamber was cut from solid rock below ground, which is relatively easy with this rock, but there was a structure above, often rather large.
In other regions they are normally built up above ground.
Others are round tumuli with stone retaining walls, with steps down to rock-cut chambers below.
TOMBS AND TUMULI
TOMBS AND TUMULI
TOMBS AND TUMULI