App Tibet Philosophers 2008

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<p>tudes thmatiques 22</p> <p>Images of Tibet in the 19th and 20th CenturiesVolume I</p> <p>Edited by Monica Esposito</p> <p>Paris EFEO</p> <p>2008</p> <p>Images of Tibet in 19th and 20th Centuries. Textes runis et prsents par Monica Esposito, Paris : cole franaise dExtrme-Orient, collection tudes thmatiques , 22, vol. I, 2008. 427 + xxiv p. ; 27,5 18,5 cm. Notes en bas de page. Illustrations. Rsums en anglais et en franais ISBN : 9782855396736 ISSN : 1269-8067 Mots-cls : Reception of Buddhism, Tibet, Japan, China, West, Sino-Tibetan relations, Orientalism, Tibetology, Esoteric Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhist Art, Anthropology of Religion, History of Ideas</p> <p>Ralisation : KOBAYASHI Tsuneyoshi</p> <p> 2008, cole franaise dExtrme-Orient. 22, avenue du Prsident Wilson, 75116 Paris, France http://www.efeo.fr/</p> <p>volume i</p> <p>contentsx xiii xxi xxii</p> <p>List of illustrations Introduction by Monica esposito Conventions Map of TibetwEst</p> <p>5-60</p> <p>Urs App The Tibet of the Philosophers: Kant, Hegel, and Schopenhauer Isrun engelhArdt The Nazis of Tibet: A Twentieth Century Myth Elena de rossi Filibeck Tibet: The Ancient Island of Giuseppe Tucci Lionel obAdiA Esprit(s) du Tibet Le bouddhisme tibtain en France : topographies paradoxales, territorialisation et conomie de limaginaire tibtophile Hartmut WAlrAvens Some Notes on Early Tibetan Studies in Europe Donald S. lopez, Jr. Tibetology in the United States of America: A Brief History</p> <p>63-96</p> <p>99-111</p> <p>113-147</p> <p>149-176</p> <p>179-198</p> <p>japan 203-222</p> <p>okuyAmA Naoji The Tibet Fever among Japanese Buddhists of the Meiji Eratranslated by Rolf Giebel</p> <p>225-242</p> <p>onodA Shunz The Meiji Suppression of Buddhism and Its Impact on the Spirit of Exploration and Academism of Buddhist Monkstranslated by Monica Esposito</p> <p>245-262</p> <p>FukudA Yichi The Philosophical Reception of Tibetan Buddhism in Japantranslated by Rolf Giebel</p> <p>china Part 1 267-300</p> <p>shen Weirong &amp; WAng Liping Background Books and a Books Background: Images of Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism in Chinese Literature Gray tuttle Tibet as the Source of Messianic Teachings to Save Republican China Ester biAnchi Protecting Beijing: The Tibetan Image of YamntakaVajrabhairava in Late Imperial and Republican China Franoise WAng-toutAin Comment Asaga rencontra Maitreya : contact entre bouddhisme chinois et tibtain au xxe sicle chen Bing The Tantric Revival and Its Reception in Modern Chinatranslated by Monica Esposito</p> <p>303-327</p> <p>329-356</p> <p>359-385</p> <p>387-427</p> <p>volume ii</p> <p>contentschina 433-471</p> <p> Part 2</p> <p>luo Tongbing The Reformist Monk Taixu and the Controversy about Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism Monica esposito rDzogs Chen in China: From Chan to Tibetan Tantrism in Fahai Lamas (1920-1991) Footsteps Henry C. H. shiu Tibetan Buddhism in Hong Kong: The Polarity in the Two Trends of Practicing yAo Lixiang The Development and Evolution of Tibetan Buddhism in Taiwantranslated by Liu Jingguo</p> <p>473-548</p> <p>551-577</p> <p>579-609</p> <p>611-681</p> <p>chen Qingying and WAng Xiangyun Tibetology in China: A Survey</p> <p>tibEt 687-704</p> <p>Erberto lo bue Tibetan Aesthetics versus Western Aesthetics in the Appreciation of Religious Art Karnina kollmAr-pAulenz Uncivilized Nomads and Buddhist Clerics: Tibetan Images of the Mongols in the 19th and 20th Centuries</p> <p>707-724</p> <p>727-745</p> <p>Patricia berger Reincarnation in an Age of Mechanical Reproduction: The Career of the Narthang Panchen Lama Portraits Antonio terrone Tibetan Buddhism beyond the Monastery: Revelation and Identity in rNying ma Communities of Present-day Kham Sabina rAgAini Life and Teachings of Tashi Dorje: A Dzogchen Tulku in 20th Century Kham Matthew T. kApstein Tibetan Tibetology? Sketches of an Emerging Discipline Index of Proper Names List of Contributors</p> <p>747-779</p> <p>781-796</p> <p>799-815</p> <p>819-856 858-859</p> <p>illustrAtionsxxii Map of Tibet (CHGIS version 2, China in Time and Space, August 2003, dem)wEst</p> <p>19 44 59 101</p> <p>Pallas: Sammlungen historischer Nachrichten vol. 1 (1771): Plate 10 Pallas, Sammlungen historischer Nachrichten vol. 2 (1801): Plate 14 Schopenhauers Buddha statue. (Schopenhauer Archiv, Frankfurt am Main) Giuseppe Tucci with a local dignitary. (Negative stored [Istituto Italiano per lAfrica e lOriente, Rome] 6027/21)</p> <p>japan</p> <p>204 204</p> <p>Kawaguchi Ekai (1866-1945) The departure of Kawaguchi Ekai from Lhasa for India. (Scroll of Kawaguchi Ekai, no. 24: courtesy of Miyata Emi )</p> <p>china Part 1</p> <p>304 316 319 320 327 327 330 332 332 334 341</p> <p>The ninth Panchen Lama. (Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art) Ritual implements used by the Ninth Panchen Lama in Hangzhou, China 1930s. (Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art) Peace Mandala of Shambhala on floor of Temple, Oct. 1932. (Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art) Kyil Khor of Shambhala, Oct. 1932, Back of inside Throne. (Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art) The Living God of Asia, 1934. (Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art) The Panchen Lama during the retreat, 1934. (Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art) Sign in front of Shanyindian, Beihai. (Photo by E. Bianchi) Mandala on the vault of Shanyindian, Beihai. (Photo by E. Bianchi) Statue of Vajrabhairava in Shanyindian, Beihai. (Photo by E. Bianchi) Nine niches on the ceiling of the Taihedian, Forbidden City. (Photo by E. Bianchi) Detail of Shanyindian, in front of the Baita, Beihai. (Photo by E. Bianchi) x</p> <p>343 343 343 367</p> <p>Statue of Vajrabhairava in Mizongdian, Yonghegong. (Photo by E. Bianchi) Statue of Vajrabhairava in Dongpeidian, Yonghegong. (Photo by E. Bianchi) Statue of Vajrabhairava in Yamandagalou, Yonghegong. (Photo by E. Bianchi) Asaga. (Collection of M. Donald Rubin)</p> <p>china Part 2</p> <p>433 475 477 477 478 480 481 481 483 484 485 495</p> <p>Venerable Master Taixu. (Source: Yinshun Cultural and Educational Foundation, Xinzhu County, Taiwan) Fahai Lama at Qianfo chansi. (Gift of Fahai Lama) Miaokong, the young Fahai Lama. (Gift of Fahai Lama) Gangs dkar rin po che. (Source: Yangdui , Hong Kong/Taibei: Tantrayana Publications, 1981-1985, vol. 3) Gangs dkar monastery, Mi nyag region [Khams]. (Photo by M. Esposito) Qianfo chansi , the Thousand Buddhas Monastery. (Photo by M. Esposito) Taijidong , the Great Ultimate cave. (Photo by M. Esposito) Fahai Lama and his disciples in front of Taijidong. (Source: Mianhuai Fahai shangshi , Hong Kong, 1995) Nuns practicing koutou at Qianfo chansi. (Photo by M. Esposito) Rev. Folian practicing the sixfold yoga of Nropa at Qianfo chansi. (Photo by M. Esposito) Fahai Lamas teaching session at Qianfo chansi. (Photo by M. Esposito) Dayuanman guanding yiji quanji Fahai lama [Complete collection of the explicative commentaries on Great Perfection initiations]. (Photo by M. Esposito) The Lamp of the Pure Space. (Source: Dayuanman guanding , Fahai Lama's manuscript) Adamantine strands. (Source: Dayuanman guanding , Fahai Lama's manuscript) Adamantine strands like a string of pearls. (Source: The Collected Rediscovered Teachings [gter ma] of Gter-chen Mchog-gyur-gli-pa)</p> <p>513 517 517</p> <p>xi</p> <p>517 518 525 525</p> <p>Adamantine strands like knots tied into a horses tail. (Source: The Collected Rediscovered Teachings [gter ma] of Gter-chen Mchog-gyur-gli-pa) The manifestation of forms of deities. (Source: The Collected Rediscovered Teachings [gter ma] of Gter-chen Mchog-gyur-gli-pa) Guanyin. (Gift of Rev. Folian) Vajrayogin. (Gift of Rev. Folian)</p> <p>tibEt</p> <p>729 729 730 733 733 735 738 741 753 757 762 775</p> <p>Gyaltsen Norbu in the Sunlight Hall, Tashilhunpo Monastery. (Source: Fomen shengshi: The Confirmation and Enthronement of the 11th Bainqen Erdeni, 1996, 103) Sakya Paita, sixth portrait in the Narthang Panchen Lama series. (Theos Bernard Collection, Gift of G. Eleanor Murray) Sakya Paita, sixth portrait in the silk textile series of the Panchen Lamas. (Source: Xizang tangka, pl. 60) The 4th Panchen Lama, eleventh in the Narthang Panchen Lama series. (Theos Bernard Collection, Gift of G. Eleanor Murray) The 6th Panchen Lama, thirteenth in the Narthang Panchen Lama series. (Theos Bernard Collection, Gift of G. Eleanor Murray) The 4th Panchen Lama, eleventh in the series sent to the Qing court by the 6th Panchen Lama. (Palace Museum, Beijing) rya Lokevara, sent by Polhanay in 1745 to the Yonghegong, Beijing. (Source: Precious Deposits, vol. 4, no. 13) The 9th Panchen Lama, silk textile portrait made in Hangzhou. (Source: Xizang tangka, pl. 81) The Buddhist teacher and Treasure revealer Grub dbang lung rtogs rgyal mtshan. (Photo by A. Terrone) Monks outside the main assembly hall of Bla rung sgar in gSer rta (Sichuan). (Photo by A. Terrone) A view of the Buddhist center Thub bstan chos khor gling in mGo log (Qinghai). (Photo by A. Terrone) A group of Chinese lay Buddhist devotees enjoy sacred dances at Ya chen sgar. (Photo by A. Terrone)</p> <p>xii</p> <p>west</p> <p>The Tibet of Philosophers: Kant, Hegel, and Schopenhauer The manifold discussions in the wake of Edward Said's 1978 book on Orientalism and pioneer attempts to portray the history of the Western discovery of Buddhism showed that there is a dire need for case studies that throw light on the views of specific persons about specific Asian phenomena at specific points in time. Here, the views of three well-read philosophers from Germany, a nation without any colonial interest in Tibet or neighboring regions, are explored. The views of all three men are well documented through their own writings or through lecture notes by students. What kind of information were they gathering, and from what sources? What did they focus on, and what did they come up with? What motivated them to read about Tibet, and to what extent did their world view, their religion, their philosophy, and particular interests shape their ideas of the mysterious country in the Himalayas? The views expressed by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) from the 1750s to the turn of the century reflect a rapidly changing breakdown of the biblical view of history and the philosopher's pronounced interest in the history of the earth and of humanity. To Kant Tibet appeared as the first country to emerge from the latest great flood. He ignored the Bible in viewing Tibet as the cradle of humanity and the seat of mankind's most ancient culture and religion. G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) also adopted an Asian origin of history and a gradual progress from a primitive state to perfection, but in contrast to Kant he still clung to a strictly biblical timeframe. Unlike Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) showed a pronounced philosophical interest in Asia. He is the first European philosopher to be influenced by Asian philosophy and religion at an early stage in his career. He became convinced that the Kangyur was the oldest and most complete repository of Buddhist texts and admired early translations of some of its texts. In 1850s the philosopher became the first Westerner to refer to himself as a Buddhist. Le Tibet des philosophes: Kant, Hegel et Schopenhauer Les discussions aprs la publication du livre Orientalisme dEdward Said, ainsi quun nombre desquisses pionnires de lhistoire de la dcouverte du bouddhisme par les occidentaux ont montr la ncessit dtudier des cas particuliers mettant en lumire les points de vue de personnes distinctes concernant des phnomnes orientaux spcifiques dans un cadre historique dfini. Cette contribution prsente les opinions de trois philosophes rudits originaires dAllemagne, un pays sans intrts coloniaux au Tibet ou dans les rgions voisines. Ces points de vue sont relativement bien documents tant par les crits de ces trois philosophes que par les notes de leurs tudiants. Quelle sorte dinformation ont-ils cherch et quelles taient leurs sources ? Quels phnomnes ont attir leur attention et quel tait le rsultat de leurs recherches ? Quels motifs animaient leur lecture sur le Tibet et comment leur vision du monde, leur religion, leur philosophie et leurs intrts particuliers ont dtermin leurs ides sur ce pays mystrieux de lHimalaya ? Telles sont les questions poses. Le point de vue exprim par Emmanuel Kant (1724-1804) entre 1750 et la fin du sicle reflte laffaiblisssement progressif de la conception biblique de lhistoire, ainsi que lintrt prononc du philosophe pour lhistoire de la terre et de lhomme. Pour Kant, le Tibet est le premier pays merger des ocans du dluge. Abandonnant lapproche biblique, Kant voit le Tibet comme le berceau de lhumanit et par consquent de toutes culture et religion. G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) situe, lui aussi, lorigine de lhistoire de lhomme en Asie. ses yeux, cette histoire se prsente comme un progrs graduel vers la perfection partir dun tat primitif mais, la diffrence de Kant, il ne parvient pas abandonner le cadre chronologique de lhistoire biblique. Contrairement Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) montre un intrt prononc pour les religions et les philosophies de lAsie. Il est le premier philosophe europen stre laiss autant influencer par elles au cours de sa priode formative. Il tait persuad que le Kangyur reprsentait la collection la plus ancienne et complte des textes bouddhiques et tait un ardent admirateur des premires traductions de certains de ses textes. Dans les annes 1850 ce philosophe fut le premier occidental se dire bouddhiste .</p> <p>the tibet of the philosopherskant, hegel, and schopenhauer</p> <p>Urs a pp k ant</p> <p>he 1757 announcement of Kants pioneering course on physical geo graphyby far his most popular lecture series which ended only in 1796 signals his interest in theories of our earths formation. For example, the presence of sea shells and maritime fossils on high mountains indicated that all firm land once formed the bottom of the sea;1 but how did animals and plants of the tropics end up petrified or frozen in faraway lands? Had there been a drastic climate change due to a changing inclination of the earths axis?2 Kant had little sympathy for the likes of Woodward3 and Whiston4 who, in the wake of Father Athanasius Kircher, had ended up using science to prop up the Old Testament nar rative. Already in his General Theory of Nature and Theory of the Heavens of 1755 Kant had outlined an earth formation process in which an initial liquid state was followed by the gradual formation of a crust. Subsequently, the familiar features of the earth gradually took form primarily through erosion by the receding sea and by mighty rivers which carried water from higher plains to lower regions.5 At this early stage</p> <p>T</p> <p>Immanuel Kant, Kants Werke (AkademieTextausgabe; Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1968): vol. 2 (Vorkritische Schriften II), 8. Note: All translations from nonEnglish materials in this contribution are by the author. 2 Kant, Werke, vol. 2, 8. Louville DAllonville had proposed in 1714 that over the unheardof period of 200,000 years a drastic climate change had occurred. See Manfred Petri, Die Urvolkhypothese ein Beitrag zum Geschichtsdenken der Sptaufklrung und des deutschen Idealismus (Berlin: Duncker &amp; Humblot, 1990): 31. 3 John Woodward, An Essay toward a Natural History of the Ear...</p>