Concordia o tolleranza? François Baudouin (1520-1573) e i "Moyenneurs."by Mario Turchetti

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  • Concordia o tolleranza? Franois Baudouin (1520-1573) e i "Moyenneurs." by Mario TurchettiReview by: Donald Christopher NugentThe American Historical Review, Vol. 90, No. 4 (Oct., 1985), pp. 940-941Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Historical AssociationStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1858903 .Accessed: 25/06/2014 03:51

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  • 940 Reviews of Books 940 Reviews of Books 940 Reviews of Books

    On one matter, however, Miskimin's argument is not wholly persuasive. He holds that an examination of wheat prices shows that markets adjusted "virtu- ally instantaneously" (p. 67) to debasements so that commodity prices were actually figured in bullion rather than in the livre of account, which was subject to alteration by the king. But the price data-often only a few wheat quotations per year-and the chronological structure of the test-year-to-year prices figured in bullion values-belie the claim of nearly instantaneous adjustment. Surely it was in the weeks or months of movement toward congruence that French kings found the rewards that encour- aged them to continue practicing debasement.

    Monetary forces, specifically the scarcity of bul- lion in fifteenth-century France, can now be consid- ered with other factors in explaining political, reli- gious, economic, even social, developments of that era. Yet, despite its quantitative nature, monetary evidence cannot be used to portray the scale of the effect quantitatively; fixing the scale of the monetary effect, like fixing the scale of other effects, requires the qualitative judgment of the historian.

    JAMES C. RILEY

    Indiana University

    On one matter, however, Miskimin's argument is not wholly persuasive. He holds that an examination of wheat prices shows that markets adjusted "virtu- ally instantaneously" (p. 67) to debasements so that commodity prices were actually figured in bullion rather than in the livre of account, which was subject to alteration by the king. But the price data-often only a few wheat quotations per year-and the chronological structure of the test-year-to-year prices figured in bullion values-belie the claim of nearly instantaneous adjustment. Surely it was in the weeks or months of movement toward congruence that French kings found the rewards that encour- aged them to continue practicing debasement.

    Monetary forces, specifically the scarcity of bul- lion in fifteenth-century France, can now be consid- ered with other factors in explaining political, reli- gious, economic, even social, developments of that era. Yet, despite its quantitative nature, monetary evidence cannot be used to portray the scale of the effect quantitatively; fixing the scale of the monetary effect, like fixing the scale of other effects, requires the qualitative judgment of the historian.

    JAMES C. RILEY

    Indiana University

    On one matter, however, Miskimin's argument is not wholly persuasive. He holds that an examination of wheat prices shows that markets adjusted "virtu- ally instantaneously" (p. 67) to debasements so that commodity prices were actually figured in bullion rather than in the livre of account, which was subject to alteration by the king. But the price data-often only a few wheat quotations per year-and the chronological structure of the test-year-to-year prices figured in bullion values-belie the claim of nearly instantaneous adjustment. Surely it was in the weeks or months of movement toward congruence that French kings found the rewards that encour- aged them to continue practicing debasement.

    Monetary forces, specifically the scarcity of bul- lion in fifteenth-century France, can now be consid- ered with other factors in explaining political, reli- gious, economic, even social, developments of that era. Yet, despite its quantitative nature, monetary evidence cannot be used to portray the scale of the effect quantitatively; fixing the scale of the monetary effect, like fixing the scale of other effects, requires the qualitative judgment of the historian.

    JAMES C. RILEY

    Indiana University

    ROGER G. LITTLE. The Parlement of Poitiers: War, Government, and Politics in France, 1418-1436. (Royal Historical Society, Studies in History Series, number 42.) London: The Society; distributed by Humani- ties, Atlantic Highlands, NJ. 1984. Pp. xii, 251.

    In the spring of 1418 the Burgundian faction seized control of Paris, and the dauphin, the future Charles VII, fled to the south where he attempted to govern France, first in the name of his insane father and from 1422 in his own right. As Paris and the remainder of northern France remained under En- glish and Burgundian control, Charles had to create his own governmental institutions. Among them was a Parlement, which sat at Poitiers from 1418 until the recapture of Paris in 1436. There have been a number of studies of various aspects of this period, including the Parlement, and of Charles's reign as a whole. Roger G. Little's goal is to exploit the archives of the Parlement more fully than any of his predecessors and to use the material "to provide a reassessment, not only of the creation, organisa- tion and function of the Parlement itself, but in a broader sense of the enigmatic early years of Charles VII's reign" (p. 1). Unfortunately, except for the archives of the Parlement, he relies entirely on published sources and secondary works. Thus, he neglects the archives of the towns when dealing with their relations with the Parlement. In a chapter on the recruitment, functions, and wealth of the Parlementaires we are told who they were, what they

    ROGER G. LITTLE. The Parlement of Poitiers: War, Government, and Politics in France, 1418-1436. (Royal Historical Society, Studies in History Series, number 42.) London: The Society; distributed by Humani- ties, Atlantic Highlands, NJ. 1984. Pp. xii, 251.

    In the spring of 1418 the Burgundian faction seized control of Paris, and the dauphin, the future Charles VII, fled to the south where he attempted to govern France, first in the name of his insane father and from 1422 in his own right. As Paris and the remainder of northern France remained under En- glish and Burgundian control, Charles had to create his own governmental institutions. Among them was a Parlement, which sat at Poitiers from 1418 until the recapture of Paris in 1436. There have been a number of studies of various aspects of this period, including the Parlement, and of Charles's reign as a whole. Roger G. Little's goal is to exploit the archives of the Parlement more fully than any of his predecessors and to use the material "to provide a reassessment, not only of the creation, organisa- tion and function of the Parlement itself, but in a broader sense of the enigmatic early years of Charles VII's reign" (p. 1). Unfortunately, except for the archives of the Parlement, he relies entirely on published sources and secondary works. Thus, he neglects the archives of the towns when dealing with their relations with the Parlement. In a chapter on the recruitment, functions, and wealth of the Parlementaires we are told who they were, what they

    ROGER G. LITTLE. The Parlement of Poitiers: War, Government, and Politics in France, 1418-1436. (Royal Historical Society, Studies in History Series, number 42.) London: The Society; distributed by Humani- ties, Atlantic Highlands, NJ. 1984. Pp. xii, 251.

    In the spring of 1418 the Burgundian faction seized control of Paris, and the dauphin, the future Charles VII, fled to the south where he attempted to govern France, first in the name of his insane father and from 1422 in his own right. As Paris and the remainder of northern France remained under En- glish and Burgundian control, Charles had to create his own governmental institutions. Among them was a Parlement, which sat at Poitiers from 1418 until the recapture of Paris in 1436. There have been a number of studies of various aspects of this period, including the Parlement, and of Charles's reign as a whole. Roger G. Little's goal is to exploit the archives of the Parlement more fully than any of his predecessors and to use the material "to provide a reassessment, not only of the creation, organisa- tion and function of the Parlement itself, but in a broader sense of the enigmatic early years of Charles VII's reign" (p. 1). Unfortunately, except for the archives of the Parlement, he relies entirely on published sources and secondary works. Thus, he neglects the archives of the towns when dealing with their relations with the Parlement. In a chapter on the recruitment, functions, and wealth of the Parlementaires we are told who they were, what they

    did, and what income they received in so far as it appeared in the parliamentary records. We learn little of their social background or other possible sources of income. The author includes none of the charts or tables so dear to the Annales school and little information for the growing number of stu- dents of the patron-client relationship.

    There are, however, admirable aspects of this book. Little's research is careful and his interpreta- tions provocative. His style is straightforward and clear, although one could wish that he had trans- lated the numerous French quotations that break up the otherwise smooth-flowing narrative. The histor- ical revisions he offers merit consideration, although in some instances he goes too far. He finds that "the period 1418-36 marked a dynamic phase of Charles's reign, characterized by ceaseless journey- ing" (p. 58). The role of Joan of Arc in the recovery of France is correspondingly reduced. The Parlement at Poitiers was not feeble and its magis- trates were not poor. The several thousand refugees who fled to the south led to "the creation of new industries and the expansion of existing ones" (p. 212). The charge that Charles was weak and apa- thetic in his dealings with the nobility is rejected. Rather, his "reign constituted one of the last phases in the centuries-old attempt by the French crown to control the independent ambitions of its greater vassals and to bring them more closely into its own orbit" (p. 212). "Charles's lavish concessions to the nobility ... displayed great foresight [because he] needed every ally he could get.... Hence, concilia- tion and concession rather than punishment and alienation are themes which occur again and again.... [Charles as a monarch had] an acute grasp of the political realities of his time" (p. 213).

    J. RUSSELL MAJOR

    Emory University

    did, and what income they received in so far as it appeared in the parliamentary records. We learn little of their social background or other possible sources of income. The author includes none of the charts or tables so dear to the Annales school and little information for the growing number of stu- dents of the patron-client relationship.

    There are, however, admirable aspects of this book. Little's research is careful and his interpreta- tions provocative. His style is straightforward and clear, although one could wish that he had trans- lated the numerous French quotations that break up the otherwise smooth-flowing narrative. The histor- ical revisions he offers merit consideration, although in some instances he goes too far. He finds that "the period 1418-36 marked a dynamic phase of Charles's reign, characterized by ceaseless journey- ing" (p. 58). The role of Joan of Arc in the recovery of France is correspondingly reduced. The Parlement at Poitiers was not feeble and its magis- trates were not poor. The several thousand refugees who fled to the south led to "the creation of new industries and the expansion of existing ones" (p. 212). The charge that Charles was weak and apa- thetic in his dealings with the nobility is rejected. Rather, his "reign constituted one of the last phases in the centuries-old attempt by the French crown to control the independent ambitions of its greater vassals and to bring them more closely into its own orbit" (p. 212). "Charles's lavish concessions to the nobility ... displayed great foresight [because he] needed every ally he could get.... Hence, concilia- tion and concession rather than punishment and alienation are themes which occur again and again.... [Charles as a monarch had] an acute grasp of the political realities of his time" (p. 213).

    J. RUSSELL MAJOR

    Emory University

    did, and what income they received in so far as it appeared in the parliamentary records. We learn little of their social background or other possible sources of income. The author includes none of the charts or tables so dear to the Annales school and little information for the growing number of stu- dents of the patron-client relationship.

    There are, however, admirable aspects of this book. Little's research is careful and his interpreta- tions provocative. His style is straightforward and clear, although one could wish that he had trans- lated the numerous French quotations that break up the otherwise smooth-flowing narrative. The histor- ical revisions he offers merit consideration, although in some instances he goes too far. He finds that "the period 1418-36 marked a dynamic phase of Charles's reign, characterized by ceaseless journey- ing" (p. 58). The role of Joan of Arc in the recovery of France is correspondingly reduced. The Parlement at Poitiers was not feeble and its magis- trates were not poor. The several thousand refugees who fled to the south led to "the creation of new industries and the expansion of existing ones" (p. 212). The charge that Charles was weak and apa- thetic in his dealings with the nobility is rejected. Rather, his "reign constituted one of the last phases in the centuries-old attempt by the French crown to control the independent ambitions of its greater vassals and to bring them more closely into its own orbit" (p. 212). "Charles's lavish concessions to the nobility ... displayed great foresight [because he] needed every ally he could get.... Hence, concilia- tion and concession rather than punishment and alienation are themes which occur again and again.... [Charles as a monarch had] an acute grasp of the political realities of his time" (p. 213).

    J. RUSSELL MAJOR

    Emory University

    MARIO TURCHETTI. Concordia o tolleranza? Francois Baudouin (1520-1573) e i "Moyenneurs." (Travaux d'Humanisme et Renaissance, number 200.) Ge- neva: Droz. 1984. Pp. 649.

    This challenging but most welcome book is various things. It is a new and another rehabilitating study of the once-curious Francois Baudouin, long consid- ered the chameleon of the Reformation. It is equally a dispassionate and ecumenical study of the middle or irenical party of the Reformation, of which Baudouin was a significant part, in the critical pe- riod 1550-70. Finally, if incidentally, its voluminous documentation constitutes virtually a parallel book, which provides a sensitive, rather exhaustive, and sometimes exhausting review of the battle of the historians that has inevitably succeeded that of the history itself. No doubt, I will not be the only one to

    MARIO TURCHETTI. Concordia o tolleranza? Francois Baudouin (1520-1573) e i "Moyenneurs." (Travaux d'Humanisme et Renaissance, number 200.) Ge- neva: Droz. 1984. Pp. 649.

    This challenging but most welcome book is various things. It is a new and another rehabilitating study of the once-curious Francois Baudouin, long consid- ered the chameleon of the Reformation. It is equally a dispassionate and ecumenical study of the middle or irenical party of the Reformation, of which Baudouin was a significant part, in the critical pe- riod 1550-70. Finally, if incidentally, its voluminous documentation constitutes virtually a parallel book, which provides a sensitive, rather exhaustive, and sometimes exhausting review of the battle of the historians that has inevitably succeeded that of the history itself. No doubt, I will not be the only one to

    MARIO TURCHETTI. Concordia o tolleranza? Francois Baudouin (1520-1573) e i "Moyenneurs." (Travaux d'Humanisme et Renaissance, number 200.) Ge- neva: Droz. 1984. Pp. 649.

    This challenging but most welcome book is various things. It is a new and another rehabilitating study of the once-curious Francois Baudouin, long consid- ered the chameleon of the Reformation. It is equally a dispassionate and ecumenical study of the middle or irenical party of the Reformation, of which Baudouin was a significant part, in the critical pe- riod 1550-70. Finally, if incidentally, its voluminous documentation constitutes virtually a parallel book, which provides a sensitive, rather exhaustive, and sometimes exhausting review of the battle of the historians that has inevitably succeeded that of the history itself. No doubt, I will not be the only one to

    This content downloaded from 91.229.229.13 on Wed, 25 Jun 2014 03:51:45 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

    http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

  • Modern Europe 941 Modern Europe 941

    turn to the index of this book with apprehension as well as anticipation.

    Mario Turchetti's major objective is to clarify once and for all the difference between the two terms of the title, concord and toleration. Descending from Erasmus, the great men advocating concord are Baudouin, George Cassander, and Claude D'Es- pence. Apart from the politiques, the great propo- nent of a definitive toleration is Sebastian Castellio. The two parties have often been indiscriminately rolled into one, but the author argues consistently and convincingly that the proponents of concord championed only a tactical or temporary toleration as a condition of ultimate unity. They could not countenance the dismemberment of Christendom. Turchetti's principal thesis is that "the theory of concord of Baudouin is not to be confused with the various theories of toleration" (p. 445), which seems more than adequately demonstrated.

    Turchetti also demonstrates greater continuity and stability in the sometime "chameleon" of the Reformation. Accused of changing his religion seven times in twenty years, Baudouin actually grad- ually returned to his original Catholic faith. The consequence was some of the sharpest polemics of a polemical age. Baudouin had to deal with not just his old master, Calvin, but also Calvin's successor, Theodore Beza, who considered that Baudouin had rejoined "the apostates of Satan" (p. 595 n. 69). Calvin comes through here as less ecumenical than in some earlier studies, including my own, with a distinction noted between the earlier and later Calvin. He eventually turned against concord as betraying the Gospel. Baudouin, for his part, was directed to the Fathers by the cardinal of Lorraine and primarily Lorraine's peritus, D'Espence (finally getting some much merited attention but still want- ing a monograph). Armed with Augustine and Optatus, Baudouin used the latter's work against the Donatists as a "blast of the trumpet" to tar Protes- tants with the brush of Donatism (p. 481).

    The "crucial moment" and centerpiece of the book is the Colloquy of Poissy and its sequel, the Edict of Toleration of January 1562, representing, respectively, concord and tolerance (pp. 592-93). In this I am naturally pleased to see that my own work on Poissy has been largely sustained. The author is perspicacious about its greatest controversy, the matter of the cardinal of Lorraine, but Turchetti generally continues the rehabilitating scholarship of the late H. 0. Evennett. He even finds new evidence in support of Lorraine's sincerity. At the same time he concludes that Nicola Sutherland's revisionist essay against both Evennett and myself is "difficult to sustain" (p. 222 n. 53).

    Apparently the maiden effort of an obviously very promising scholar, this book is profusely docu- mented, brilliantly integrated, and gracefully writ-

    turn to the index of this book with apprehension as well as anticipation.

    Mario Turchetti's major objective is to clarify once and for all the difference between the two terms of the title, concord and toleration. Descending from Erasmus, the great men advocating concord are Baudouin, George Cassander, and Claude D'Es- pence. Apart from the politiques, the great propo- nent of a definitive toleration is Sebastian Castellio. The two parties have often been indiscriminately rolled into one, but the author argues consistently and convincingly that the proponents of concord championed only a tactical or temporary toleration as a condition of ultimate unity. They could not countenance the dismemberment of Christendom. Turchetti's principal thesis is that "the theory of concord of Baudouin is not to be confused with the various theories of toleration" (p. 445), which seems more than adequately demonstrated.

    Turchetti also demonstrates greater continuity and stability in the sometime "chameleon" of the Reformation. Accused of changing his religion seven times in twenty years, Baudouin actually grad- ually returned to his original Catholic faith. The consequence was some of the sharpest polemics of a polemical age. Baudouin had to deal with not just his old master, Calvin, but also Calvin's successor, Theodore Beza, who considered that Baudouin had rejoined "the apostates of Satan" (p. 595 n. 69). Calvin comes through here as less ecumenical than in some earlier studies, including my own, with a distinction noted between the earlier and later Calvin. He eventually turned against concord as betraying the Gospel. Baudouin, for his part, was directed to the Fathers by the cardinal of Lorraine and primarily Lorraine's peritus, D'Espence (finally getting some much merited attention but still want- ing a monograph). Armed with Augustine and Optatus, Baudouin used the latter's work against the Donatists as a "blast of the trumpet" to tar Protes- tants with the brush of Donatism (p. 481).

    The "crucial moment" and centerpiece of the book is the Colloquy of Poissy and its sequel, the Edict of Toleration of January 1562, representing, respectively, concord and tolerance (pp. 592-93). In this I am naturally pleased to see that my own work on Poissy has been largely sustained. The author is perspicacious about its greatest controversy, the matter of the cardinal of Lorraine, but Turchetti generally continues the rehabilitating scholarship of the late H. 0. Evennett. He even finds new evidence in support of Lorraine's sincerity. At the same time he concludes that Nicola Sutherland's revisionist essay against both Evennett and myself is "difficult to sustain" (p. 222 n. 53).

    Apparently the maiden effort of an obviously very promising scholar, this book is profusely docu- mented, brilliantly integrated, and gracefully writ-

    ten. Typographical errors are minimal for a work of this magnitude, but, unfortunately, one of them is that Richard Popkin has somehow become H. Hopkin (pp. 99, 614).

    DONALD CHRISTOPHER NUGENT

    University of Kentucky

    ten. Typographical errors are minimal for a work of this magnitude, but, unfortunately, one of them is that Richard Popkin has somehow become H. Hopkin (pp. 99, 614).

    DONALD CHRISTOPHER NUGENT

    University of Kentucky

    PHILIP T. HOFFMAN. Church and Community in the Diocese of Lyon, 1500-1789. (Yale Historical Publica- tions, Miscellany, number 132.) New Haven: Yale University Press. 1984. Pp. x, 239.

    Philip T. Hoffman's study of the implementation of the Counter Reformation in the diocese of Lyon concentrates on relations between the Catholic clergy and parish communities in town and country. To understand the long-term development of Cath- olic reform, he has chosen to study the entire period of the ancien regime, thus revealing several interest- ing trends that might otherwise have escaped notice. The major themes of his discussion follow the argu- ments of Robert Muchembled, Jean Delumeau, and Peter Burke that the Counter Reformation repre- sented an attack by a urban elite culture on a rural popular culture and religion. Hoffman studies first the resurgence of Catholicism in the city of Lyon, where a new spirit of piety set in during the second half of the sixteenth century, overcoming the old lay hostility to the clergy and allowing the laity a role in civic politics previously denied them. From this secure urban platform a renewed Tridentine clergy was able to launch an assault on the religious prac- tices of the countryside at the beginning of the seventeenth century.

    Hoffman provides a succinct overview of the state of the rural clergy and its role in the ritual and communal life of the parishes during the sixteenth century. He then discusses the nature and extent of clerical reform, which was to separate clergymen from close contact with their parishioners, turn them into exemplars of a new piety and spirituality, and imbue them with hostility to the old morality, rituals, and celebrations of the countryside. This was a piety inspired by the individualistic, sober, disci- plined ethic of the urban elites, but one that sought to take away lay control over religious life and invest it firmly in the hands of the clergy. Here the clerical thrust of reform could even attack earlier lay forms of Catholic reform, such as some of the sixteenth- century confraternities. It was an ethic of self- control that emphasized the sharp separation of the sacred and the profane, condemning the world of the flesh as the realm of Satan. Measured in terms of schools, charities, confraternities, pious bequests, and the suppression of popular festivals and rituals, clergymen were more or less successful in their task-nowhere more so than among women, to

    PHILIP T. HOFFMAN. Church and Community in the Diocese of Lyon, 1500-1789. (Yale Historical Publica- tions, Miscellany, number 132.) New Haven: Yale University Press. 1984. Pp. x, 239.

    Philip T. Hoffman's study of the implementation of the Counter Reformation in the diocese of Lyon concentrates on relations between the Catholic clergy and parish communities in town and country. To understand the long-term development of Cath- olic reform, he has chosen to study the entire period of the ancien regime, thus revealing several interest- ing trends that might otherwise have escaped notice. The major themes of his discussion follow the argu- ments of Robert Muchembled, Jean Delumeau, and Peter Burke that the Counter Reformation repre- sented an attack by a urban elite culture on a rural popular culture and religion. Hoffman studies first the resurgence of Catholicism in the city of Lyon, where a new spirit of piety set in during the second half of the sixteenth century, overcoming the old lay hostility to the clergy and allowing the laity a role in civic politics previously denied them. From this secure urban platform a renewed Tridentine clergy was able to launch an assault on the religious prac- tices of the countryside at the beginning of the seventeenth century.

    Hoffman provides a succinct overview of the state of the rural clergy and its role in the ritual and communal life of the parishes during the sixteenth century. He then discusses the nature and extent of clerical reform, which was to separate clergymen from close contact with their parishioners, turn them into exemplars of a new piety and spirituality, and imbue them with hostility to the old morality, rituals, and celebrations of the countryside. This was a piety inspired by the individualistic, sober, disci- plined ethic of the urban elites, but one that sought to take away lay control over religious life and invest it firmly in the hands of the clergy. Here the clerical thrust of reform could even attack earlier lay forms of Catholic reform, such as some of the sixteenth- century confraternities. It was an ethic of self- control that emphasized the sharp separation of the sacred and the profane, condemning the world of the flesh as the realm of Satan. Measured in terms of schools, charities, confraternities, pious bequests, and the suppression of popular festivals and rituals, clergymen were more or less successful in their task-nowhere more so than among women, to

    This content downloaded from 91.229.229.13 on Wed, 25 Jun 2014 03:51:45 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

    http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

    Article Contentsp. 940p. 941

    Issue Table of ContentsThe American Historical Review, Vol. 90, No. 4 (Oct., 1985), pp. i-x+813-1065+1(a)-40(a)Front Matter [pp. i - x]Emotionology: Clarifying the History of Emotions and Emotional Standards [pp. 813 - 836]Engels, Marx, Malthus, and the Machine [pp. 837 - 865]Missionary Preachers in Spain: Teaching Social Virtue in the Eighteenth Century [pp. 866 - 892]The Personality of Ataturk [pp. 893 - 899]Reviews of BooksGeneraluntitled [p. 900]untitled [pp. 900 - 901]untitled [pp. 901 - 902]untitled [p. 902]untitled [pp. 902 - 903]untitled [pp. 903 - 904]untitled [p. 904]untitled [pp. 904 - 905]untitled [pp. 905 - 906]untitled [pp. 906 - 907]untitled [p. 907]untitled [p. 908]untitled [pp. 908 - 910]

    Ancientuntitled [p. 910]untitled [pp. 910 - 911]untitled [p. 911]untitled [p. 912]untitled [pp. 912 - 913]untitled [pp. 913 - 914]

    Medievaluntitled [pp. 914 - 915]untitled [p. 915]untitled [pp. 915 - 916]untitled [pp. 916 - 917]untitled [pp. 917 - 918]untitled [p. 918]untitled [pp. 918 - 919]untitled [pp. 919 - 920]untitled [p. 920]

    Modern Europeuntitled [pp. 920 - 921]untitled [pp. 921 - 922]untitled [p. 922]untitled [pp. 922 - 923]untitled [pp. 923 - 924]untitled [pp. 924 - 925]untitled [p. 925]untitled [pp. 925 - 926]untitled [pp. 926 - 927]untitled [p. 927]untitled [pp. 927 - 928]untitled [pp. 928 - 929]untitled [p. 929]untitled [pp. 929 - 930]untitled [pp. 930 - 931]untitled [p. 931]untitled [pp. 931 - 932]untitled [p. 932]untitled [pp. 932 - 933]untitled [pp. 933 - 934]untitled [p. 934]untitled [pp. 934 - 935]untitled [pp. 935 - 936]untitled [p. 936]untitled [pp. 936 - 937]untitled [pp. 937 - 938]untitled [p. 938]untitled [pp. 938 - 939]untitled [pp. 939 - 940]untitled [p. 940]untitled [pp. 940 - 941]untitled [pp. 941 - 942]untitled [pp. 942 - 943]untitled [p. 943]untitled [pp. 943 - 944]untitled [pp. 944 - 945]untitled [pp. 945 - 946]untitled [p. 946]untitled [pp. 946 - 947]untitled [pp. 947 - 948]untitled [pp. 948 - 949]untitled [pp. 949 - 950]untitled [p. 950]untitled [pp. 950 - 951]untitled [pp. 951 - 952]untitled [p. 952]untitled [pp. 952 - 953]untitled [pp. 953 - 954]untitled [pp. 954 - 955]untitled [pp. 955 - 956]untitled [p. 956]untitled [pp. 956 - 957]untitled [pp. 957 - 958]untitled [p. 958]untitled [pp. 958 - 959]untitled [pp. 959 - 960]untitled [pp. 960 - 961]untitled [p. 961]untitled [pp. 961 - 962]untitled [pp. 962 - 963]untitled [p. 963]untitled [p. 964]untitled [pp. 964 - 965]untitled [pp. 965 - 966]untitled [pp. 966 - 968]untitled [p. 968]untitled [pp. 968 - 969]untitled [pp. 969 - 970]untitled [p. 970]untitled [pp. 970 - 971]untitled [pp. 971 - 972]untitled [p. 972]untitled [pp. 972 - 973]untitled [pp. 973 - 974]untitled [pp. 974 - 975]untitled [p. 975]untitled [pp. 975 - 976]untitled [p. 976]untitled [pp. 976 - 977]untitled [pp. 977 - 978]untitled [pp. 978 - 979]untitled [p. 979]untitled [pp. 979 - 980]untitled [pp. 980 - 981]untitled [p. 981]untitled [pp. 981 - 982]untitled [pp. 982 - 983]untitled [p. 983]untitled [pp. 983 - 984]untitled [pp. 984 - 985]untitled [pp. 985 - 986]untitled [p. 986]untitled [pp. 986 - 987]

    Near Eastuntitled [pp. 987 - 988]untitled [p. 988]untitled [pp. 988 - 989]untitled [pp. 989 - 990]

    Africauntitled [pp. 990 - 991]untitled [p. 991]

    Asia And The Eastuntitled [pp. 991 - 992]untitled [pp. 992 - 993]untitled [pp. 993 - 994]untitled [p. 994]untitled [pp. 994 - 995]untitled [pp. 995 - 996]untitled [p. 996]untitled [pp. 996 - 997]untitled [pp. 997 - 998]untitled [p. 998]untitled [p. 999]untitled [pp. 999 - 1000]untitled [p. 1000]

    United Statesuntitled [pp. 1000 - 1001]untitled [pp. 1001 - 1002]untitled [p. 1002]untitled [pp. 1002 - 1003]untitled [pp. 1003 - 1004]untitled [p. 1004]untitled [pp. 1004 - 1005]untitled [p. 1005]untitled [pp. 1005 - 1006]untitled [pp. 1006 - 1007]untitled [p. 1007]untitled [pp. 1007 - 1008]untitled [p. 1008]untitled [pp. 1008 - 1009]untitled [pp. 1009 - 1010]untitled [p. 1010]untitled [pp. 1010 - 1011]untitled [p. 1011]untitled [p. 1012]untitled [pp. 1012 - 1013]untitled [p. 1013]untitled [pp. 1013 - 1014]untitled [pp. 1014 - 1015]untitled [p. 1015]untitled [pp. 1016 - 1017]untitled [p. 1017]untitled [pp. 1017 - 1018]untitled [pp. 1018 - 1019]untitled [p. 1019]untitled [pp. 1019 - 1020]untitled [pp. 1020 - 1021]untitled [p. 1021]untitled [pp. 1021 - 1022]untitled [pp. 1022 - 1023]untitled [pp. 1023 - 1024]untitled [pp. 1024 - 1025]untitled [p. 1025]untitled [pp. 1025 - 1026]untitled [p. 1026]untitled [pp. 1026 - 1027]untitled [pp. 1027 - 1028]untitled [p. 1028]untitled [p. 1029]untitled [pp. 1029 - 1030]untitled [pp. 1030 - 1031]untitled [p. 1031]untitled [pp. 1031 - 1032]untitled [p. 1032]untitled [pp. 1032 - 1033]untitled [pp. 1033 - 1034]untitled [pp. 1034 - 1035]untitled [pp. 1035 - 1036]

    Latin Americauntitled [p. 1036]untitled [pp. 1036 - 1037]untitled [pp. 1037 - 1038]untitled [p. 1038]untitled [pp. 1038 - 1039]untitled [pp. 1039 - 1040]

    Collected Essays [pp. 1041 - 1048]Documents and Bibliographies [pp. 1049 - 1051]Other Books Received [pp. 1052 - 1056]Communications [pp. 1057 - 1065]Back Matter [pp. 1(a) - 40(a)]

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