POTENTIAL USE OF SALINE WATER FOR IRRIGATING SHELTERBELT PLANTS IN THE ARID REGION

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  • concentrations for H. ammodendron and C. karshiskii respectively were 381 and 295mm, 290 and 248mm, 213 and 188mm,

    dclenche pour une humidit du sol atteignant une valeur critique donne. Sur la base des rgressions quadratiques ajustes

    IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE

    Irrig. and Drain. 61: 107115 (2012)

    Published online 16 March 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/ird.619aux donnes exprimentales, lirrigation ajuste aux besoins avec les trois concentrations de sel pour ammodendron H. et C.karshiskii taient respectivement 381 et 295mm, 290 et 248mm, 213 et 188mm, en moyenne pendant deux ans. Deux typesde fonctions de production vgtale ont t employs pour dcrire la relation entre laccroissement de la biomasse vgtale, ladose deau sale et sa qualit. Ces fonctions ont donn un bon ajustement aux donnes exprimentales et lucid les valeurstrouves pour la zone frontale (I.E. les zones directement exposes aux vents dominants). Cela pourrait tre utile lexploitation des eaux de qualit mdiocre et lestimation de la croissance et du rendement des plantes brisevent dans lecadre de la planification forestire. Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    mots cls: irrigation saline; plantes brisevent; production de biomasse; ammodendron Haloxylon Bunge; Caragana karshiskii Komaveraged for two years. Two kinds of plantwatersalinity production functions, quadratic and square root functions wereemployed to describe the relationship between plant biomass increment and quality and quantity of applied saline water. Thefunctions performed well with experimental data and showed a positive marginal productivity with water and a negativemarginal productivity with salt for the frontal area. That could be useful for evaluating lowquality water exploitation andestimating the growth and yield of shelterbelt plants in connection with forest planning. Copyright 2011 John Wiley &Sons, Ltd.

    key words: saline irrigation; shelterbelt plants; biomass production; Haloxylon ammodendron Bunge; Caragana karshiskii Kom

    Received 17 January 2010; Revised 9 November 2010; Accepted 10 November 2010

    RSUM

    Dans les zones o leau est rare, leau douce est alloue en priorit aux villes et lagriculture pendant que les bnfices issusdes cosystmes sont obtenus avec de leau de qualit mdiocre. Alors que lutilisation de leau sale des fins agricolesrequiert encore dun point de vue scientifique des besoins de quantifier leffet de la qualit et la quantit deau sur la croissancedes plantes, une exprience dirrigation avec des eaux saumtres a t ralise pour deux plantes utilises pour faire des brisevent, respectivement ammodendron Haloxylon Bunge et Caragana karshiskii Kom. Ce travail a t conduit en 200708 dans largion aride du nordouest de la Chine. Trois concentrations en sels (3, 7 et 12 g l1) ont t examines et lirrigation a tPOTENTIAL USE OF SALINE WATER FOR IRRIGATING SHELTERBELT PLANTS INTHE ARID REGION

    MENG HU1, SHAOZHONG KANG1*, JIANHUA ZHANG2, FUSHENG LI3, TAISHENG DU1 AND LING TONG1

    1Centre for Agricultural Water Research in China, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China2Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China

    3Agricultural College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, China

    ABSTRACT

    In waterscarcity areas fresh water is allocated with priority to urban areas and agriculture, and ecosystem function benefits areobtained from marginal quality water. Meanwhile the scientific use of saline water needs to quantify the effect of quality andquantity of water on plant growth. A saline irrigation experiment was carried out for two shelterbelt plants, Haloxylonammodendron Bunge and Caragana karshiskii Kom, during 200708 in the arid region of northwest China. Three saltconcentrations (3, 7 and 12 g l1) were considered and irrigation was controlled when soil moisture reached an enacted criticalvalue. Based on the quadratic regressions fitted to the experimental data, the befitting irrigation with the three salt* Correspondence to: Dr. Shaozhong Kang, Centre for Agricultural Water Research in China, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China,Tel: +861062737611; Fax: +861062737611. Email: kangshaozhong@tom.comLutilisation de leau saumtre pour irriguer les plantes brisevent dans les rgions arides.

    Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • and burial of farmland (Bielders et al., 2000; Kang et al.,2004). Haloxylon ammodendron Bunge (H. ammodendron)

    Chinclimwate

    108 M. HU ET AL.mental Station for WaterSaving in Agriculture and Ecology height and canopy diameter (Wolfe and Nickling, 1993):and Caragana karshiskii Kom (C. karshiskii) are nativedominant shrubs in northwest China and have beencommonly used for controlling desertification. In manyareas there, rainfall is so limited that the newly plantedshelterbelts cannot work effectively unless supplied withsome saline groundwater. However, indiscriminate exploi-tation of marginal quality water for irrigation in the absenceof proper saltwatervegetation management practices posesgrave risks to soil health. Because of the scarce precipitationand considerable evapotranspiration, a moderate accumula-tion of salt in shallow soil is unavoidable when saline wateris used for irrigation (Kang et al., 2004; Singh et al., 2009).To tackle the salt accumulation problem, we should

    estimate the plant yield in response to salinity and waterstress at the same time and find an appropriate irrigationstrategy. There are many studies that have attempted toestimate the separate or combined effect of water andsalinity on plant production functions. Some agriculturalpractices showed that the salinity and amount of salinewater used for irrigation generally exceeded experimentallevels but could result in good agricultural income (Knappand Sadorsky, 2000; Wang et al., 2007). Nevertheless, untilrecently there was little information available in theliterature about the quantitative relationship between annualbiomass increment of shelterbelt plants and the quantity andsalinity of applied water.The objective of the study was to quantify the effects of salt

    concentration and amount of irrigation water on the annualbiomass increment and to develop a plantwatersalinityproduction model that could be used for supplementaryirrigation with poor quality water. And we focused on theplantwatersalinity production functions of plant height,branch length, canopy diameter and frontal area in response tosaline water irrigation for H. ammodendron and C. karshiskiion the basis of experimental data. With the establishment ofsome quantitative relationships, it was possible to determinethe separate and interactive effects of the quantity and salinityof applied water on particular items of growth of the plants.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    Experimental site and design

    The experiment was conducted at the Shiyanghe Experi-INTRODUCTION

    In arid regions, wind erosion and dust storms do lots of harmto agricultural production and human health. Some winderosion control methods, such as mulching and shelterbelts,have been tested to prevent soil loss, sand dune movementCopyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.ature is 8 C and annual accumulated temperature (>0 C) is3550 C. Duration of average annual sunshine is over3000 h with 150 frostfree days.The experiment started on 1 May 2007 and ended on 21

    October 2008.Haloxylon ammodendronBungeandCaraganakarshiskiiKomplants that were 23 years oldwere used for theexperiment; the oneyearold saplings were cultivated in theusual manner, with sufficient soil water and no salt stress. Theexperimental soil was irrigated desert soil (siltigicorthicanthrosols), soil texture was loamy sand (sand (2 ~ 0.05mm) 90.1%, silt (0.05 ~ 0.002mm) 9.1% and clay (0.002mm) 0.8%). Soil electrical conductivity was 0.113 dS m1, organicmatter content 2.1 g kg1 and pH 7.8. Mean bulk density was1.41 g cm3, the field capacity (f) 0.20 cm

    3 cm3 and theinitial salt content 2.3 g kg1. The concentrations of K+, Na+,Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl, CO3

    2 and SO42 were 12, 290, 254, 80, 180,

    97 and 1201mg kg1, respectively.Three salt concentrations were considered, i.e. 3 , 7, 12 g

    l1 or electrical conductivity (ECw) of 3.2, 7.1 and 11.2 dSm1, respectively. Irrigation was based on soil water deficit,and two kinds of critical soil moisture were considered,0.10 cm3 cm3 (50%f) and 0.05 cm

    3 cm3 (25%f). Foreach salt treatment, irrigation started when soil watercontent reached the critical soil moisture, which is shownin Table I for different growing stages, and four replicateswere taken. Soil water content was determined using aportable soil moisture monitoring system (Diviner 2000,Sentek Pty Ltd, Australia), emendated by a gravimetricmethod. The saline water was obtained from a 2 : 2 : 1weight mixture of NaCl, MgSO4 and CaSO4, to representlocal groundwater chemical composition; the main concen-trations of ions in groundwater were Na+ + K+ 129.76mgl1, Mg2+ 45.71mg l1, Ca2+ 31.92mg l1, SO4

    2 296.22mgl1, Cl 150.19mg l1, HCO3

    41.19mg l1.

    Measurements and methods

    Growth parameters were measured every two weeks. Plantheight (H), from ground surface to tip, and annual branchlength (B) were measured using a tape with the accuracy of1mm. Canopy area (Ca) was calculated from digital photos(GuevaraEscobar et al., 2005; Boese et al., 2008). Thencanopy diameter (Cd) was calculated as follows:

    Cd 2Ca

    r(1)

    The frontal area (Fa) was calculated as a product of planta. The area is characterized by a continental temperateate with mean annual precipitation of 160mm and openr evaporation of 2000mm. The mean annual temper-(37 5049 N, 102 5101 E) of China AgricultureUniversity, located in the Shiyang River Basin, northwestIrrig. and Drain. 61: 107115 (2012)

  • Fa =H Cd (2)

    The annual increment was calculated as the differencebetween the beginning and the end of the growing period in

    factors that may affect biomass increment were consideredconstant.Based on previous studies (Dinar et al., 1991; Kaushal

    et al., 1985; Singh et al., 2009) on the development of saltwater production functions, the analysis here was undertakenusing quadratic and square root functional forms. Thequadratic forms imply that (while holding all other variablesconstant) an increase in the level of one of the humancontrolled variables results in a change (increase or decrease depending on the relationship) in the level of the dependentvariable up to a certain point. Any further increase in its levelresults in an opposite response (decrease or increase,respectively) in the dependent variable level. The square rootfunction is similar to the quadratic. It imposes nonzeroelasticity of substitution among factors with no growth plateauand diminishing marginal productivity, but allows for sharpercurvature near the maximum and a less rapid decrease in totalproduct than the quadratic (Llewelyn and Featherstone, 1997).The implicit relationships to be estimated were:

    2 2

    were

    Table I. The minimum critical soil moistures (cm3 cm3) atdifferent growing stages of H. ammodendron and C. karshiskii in2007 and 2008. Irrigation started when soil moisture reached thesecritical values

    Growingstage

    Sproutingstage

    Twigstage

    Vigorousstage

    Deciduousstage

    Period 22/4 ~ 20/5 21/5 ~ 19/6 20/6 ~ 10/9 11/9 ~ 20/10

    Tr0 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10Tr1 0.05 0.10 0.10 0.10Tr2 0.10 0.05 0.10 0.10Tr3 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.10Tr4 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.05

    Each treatment contained three saline concentrations: 3, 7 and 12 g l1.

    Table annubranc

    Plant

    H. am2007

    2008

    C. ka2007

    2008

    In eac

    109USE OF SALINE WATER FOR IRRIGATING SHELTERBELT PLANTS

    CopyII. The salinity and amount of irrigation water (Ir), and thea year. Table II shows the quality and quantity of appliedwater, annual increment of plant height, branch length,canopy diameter and frontal area for the Tr0 soil moisturetreatment in the two years.

    Plantwatersalinity production functions

    In this study, the annual increment of plant height, branchlength, canopy diameter and frontal area forH. ammodendronand C. karshiskii were related to two humancontrolledvariables quantity and quality of the irrigation water (hereonly the salinity component of quality is considered). Otherh length (B), canopy diameter (Cd) and frontal area (Fa) for Tr0 i

    Salinity (g l1) Ir (mm)

    modendron3 337 a7 305 a12 250 b3 389 a7 295 b12 190 c

    rshiskii3 280 a7 216 b12 195 b3 293 a7 284 a12 187 b

    h year, treatments with the same letter were not significantly different at P

    right 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.al increment of H. ammodendron and C. karshiskii in height (H),n 2007 and 2008

    H (cm) B (cm) Cd (cm) Fa (cm2)

    57.75 a 49.48 a 61.42 a 6 890 a50.17 b 44.60 ab 55.09 ab 5 587 b45.49 b 41.60 b 47.38 b 6 317 a68.05 a 68.10 a 97.78 a 13 944 a58.66 b 57.30 b 94.57 a 12 456 ab61.86 b 50.65 b 85.20 b 11 632 b

    62.65 a 39.10 a 36.86 a 2 167 a34.33 b 26.00 b 24.44 b 1 619 ab28.50 b 24.70 b 22.95 b 1 368 b79.39 a 65.45 a 73.99 a 9 674 a53.75 b 35.65 b 45.28 b 5 016 b31.52 c 22.20 c 44.10 b 3 000 c

    < 0.05.(SAS Institute Inc., USA).ll data were statistically analyzed and ANOVA analysesperformed using the SAS System for Windows V8Bio= a0 + a1Ir + a2Ir + a3C+ a4C + a5IrC (3)

    Bio= b0 + b1Ir + b2Ir0.5 + b3C+ b4C

    0.5 + b5Ir0.5C0.5 (4)

    where the annual biomass increment (Bio) was detailed byplant height (H), branch length (B), canopy diameter (Cd)and frontal area (Fa). The amount of irrigation water (Ir)and its salt concentration (C) were indicated in millimeters(mm) and grams per liter (g l1).AIrrig. and Drain. 61: 107115 (2012)

  • with saline concentration of 3, 7 and 12 g l1, the befitting

    110 M. HU ET AL.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Annual biomass under different saline irrigation

    The annual growth of H. ammodendron and C. karshiskiiin plant height, branch length, canopy diameter and frontalarea during the two years (Table II, Tr0 presented) reflectedthe effects of various amounts of irrigation water and theirsalt concentration. Response of their annual growth wassimilar for various qualities and quantities of irrigationwater. Compared to the plants irrigated with salt concen-tration of 3 g l1, the amount of irrigation water with saltconcentration of 12 g l1 applied to H. ammodendron and C.karshiskii reduced the annual growth by 26 and 30%(2007), 51 and 36% (2008), respectively. Meanwhile thereductions for the annual growth of H. ammodendron andC. karshiskii irrigated with salt concentration of 12 g l1inplant height, branch length, canopy diameter and frontalarea were 21 and 55, 16 and 37, 23 and 38, 8 and 37% in2007, 9 and 60, 26 and 66, 13 and 40, 17 and 69% in 2008,respectively. From the aforementioned statistical data, thegrowth reduction of C. karshiskii was significantly greaterthan that of H. ammodendron when the salinity of irrigationwater increased from 3 to 12 g l1, and it could be concludedthat the annual growth of C. karshiskii was more sensitive tosalt stress than H. ammodendron. And moreover, thepercentages of reduction for both H. ammodendron andC. karshiskii were greater in 2008 than in 2007, with theimpact of quite different precipitation in the growing seasonof the two years, 177mm in 2007 and 89mm in 2008. Themonsoon rains concentrated in a shorter period (JuneSeptember) not only displaced the surface salts, but thebetter quality rainwater carried over in the soil profile wasbeneficially utilized by plants. Thus Minhas (1996) declaredthat the concept of leaching requirements might hold forarid but not for semiarid monsoonal climates. Recently,Letey and Feng (2007) and Singh et al. (2009) haveindicated that predictions assuming steadystate conditionsgenerally overestimate the negative consequences ofirrigating with saline waters. Thus, it was advocated thatthe irrigation guideline for saline water be revised toaccount for the dynamic interactions between the soilwaterplant matrix and also the possible contributions ofrainfall in decreasing the impact of saline irrigation. Theseanalytical procedures were also undertaken for othertreatments (Tr1, Tr2, Tr3, Tr4), and they had similarresponses (results not shown).Table II shows that water application declined with higher

    salt concentration. From earlier work in salinity managementand salinity economics for crops, befitting water applicationgenerally increased at first with the increase of saltconcentration, expecting higher leaching fractions tocounteract the salt effects, and then started to decrease dueto reduced evapotranspiration (ET) from salt stress (LeteyCopyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.amount of irrigation water was 405 and 320, 276 and 283, 199and 185mm, respectively. Thus there was an average decreaseof 36 and 29% in the befitting amounts of irrigation water for2yearold H. ammodendron and C. karshiskii when saltconcentration increased from 3 to 12 g l1, and the decreasesfor 3yearoldH. ammodendron andC. karshiskiiwere 51 and42%, respectively.

    Quadratic and square root model as functions ofwater quantity and quality

    To be more comparable and to eliminate the influence ofclimate and soil, the annual biomass increments weregeneralized on a relative basis (ReH, Reb, ReCd, ReFa) witha value of 1 representing maximum biomass from Tr03 g l1

    treatment in the two years, respectively; and irrigation water(Ir) had been scaled to E601open pan evaporation (OPE) inthe growing periods (709mm in 2007 and 966mm in 2008).The results of the regression analyses for the

    H. ammodendron and C. karshiskii annual increments arepresented in Table IV. The regressions explained a largepercentage (more than 90%) of the observed variations inthe annual biomass increment. Levels of the Fstatistic(a test for the overall significance of a multiple regression;Greene, 2003) indicated that the estimated regressionssignificantly (p < 0.01) explained the variations in the levelsof the various dependent variables.These functions (Table IV) also indicated that the annual

    biomass increment (plant height, branch length, canopydiameter and frontal area) of H. ammodendron andand Feng, 2007; Minhas, 1996). However, H. ammodendronand C. karshiskii were perennial shrubs, which can endurecertain levels of salt stress without a need for leaching incontrast to nonhalophyte crops, and our results were acombination of the moisturedeficit only irrigation rule andreduced ET.The annual growth response functions with irrigation

    water (Ir) for three salt concentrations for the two years areplotted in Figure 1. The maximum annual biomasses werehigher with salt concentration of 3 g/l than 7 g/l and 12 g/l.And the slope of the line, which described the biomassesincreased with quantities of irrigation water, were higher withsalt concentration of 3 g/l than 7 g/l and 12 g/l. From thequadratic regressions fitted to the experimental data for eachyear, the estimated amount of irrigation water reflected thepotential of water consumption when the annual incrementreached the maximum (Table III). Averaged for plant height,branch length, canopy diameter and frontal area, the befittingamount of 3, 7 and 12 g l1 saline irrigation water for2yearold H. ammodendron and C. karshiskii was 357and 269, 304 and 213, 227 and 191mm, respectively.Meanwhile, for 3yearoldH. ammodendron andC. karshiskiiIrrig. and Drain. 61: 107115 (2012)

  • 15

    667

    .784

    007

    (

    111USE OF SALINE WATER FOR IRRIGATING SHELTERBELT PLANTSH3= -0.0050Ir 2 + 3.46Ir - 539 R2= 0.9

    H7= -0.0023Ir 2 + 1.46Ir - 187 R2= 0.

    H12= -0.0046Ir 2 + 2.11Ir - 197 R2= 0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    Heig

    ht (cm

    )3g/L7g/L12g/L 2C. karshiskii increased asymptotically with water applied upto critical values defined by the salt concentration.Moreover, the rate of their increases with Ir/OPE andthe maximum possible biomasses were also defined bysalt concentration of irrigation water. Since the higherquantities of saline water mean more input of salts, theiraddition resulted in higher salts in the root zone. Thus, thesimultaneous buildup of salinity seemed to have obscured

    the possible benefits accruing with higher quantities ofsaline waters (Singh et al., 2009).To our knowledge about the soilwaterplant relation

    while holding other variables constant, plant yield increasedas water quantity increase beyond some minimum valueand the yield decreased as the initial level of soil salinity inthe root zone and as the increased salt concentration in theirrigation water went beyond some minimum values. In the

    0 100 200 300 400B3= -0.0007Ir 2 + 0.62Ir - 76.04 R2= 0.962B7= -0.009Ir 2 + 4.95Ir - 620 R2= 0.767B12= -0.0044Ir 2 + 1.80Ir - 129 R2= 0.664

    0 100 200 300 400

    00 100 200 300B3= -0.0019Ir 2 + 1.46Ir - 231 R2= 0.737

    B7= -0.0038Ir 2 + 2.34Ir - 315 R2= 0.765

    B12= -0.0078Ir 2 + 3.43Ir - 327 R2= 0.848

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    0 100 200 300

    Bra

    nch

    le

    ngt

    h (cm

    )

    Cd3= -0.0028Ir 2 + 1.96Ir - 280 R2= 0.823

    Cd7= -0.0063Ir 2 + 3.76Ir - 505 R2= 0.905

    Cd12= -0.0061Ir 2 + 2.73Ir - 252 R2= 0.872

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    0 100 200 300

    Ca

    no

    py di

    am

    eter

    (cm)

    Fa12= -0.60Ir 2 + 284Ir - 27531 R2= 0.786

    Fa7= -0.66Ir 2 + 384Ir - 50790 R2= 0.909

    Fa3= -0.54Ir 2 + 377Ir - 58777 R2= 0.861

    0

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    10000

    12000

    14000

    0

    Fro

    nta

    l are

    a (cm

    2 )

    Irrigation (mm)

    2007

    2007

    2007

    2008

    2008

    2008

    Cd3= -0.0017Ir 2 + 1.28Ir - 142 R2= 0.928

    Cd7= -0.0095Ir 2 + 5.33Ir - 655 R2= 0.611

    Cd12= -0.0059Ir 2 + 2.38Ir - 151 R2= 0.700

    0 100 200 300 400

    Fa3= -0.14Ir 2 + 116Ir - 10574 R2= 0.970

    Fa7= -1.48Ir 2 + 820Ir - 100751 R2= 0.958

    Fa12= -1.02Ir 2 + 406Ir - 28730 R2= 0.802

    0 400300200100 300200100

    Figure 1. The annual increment of height (Hi, i = 3, 7, 12, represented salt concentrations), branch length (Bi), canopy diameter (Cdi) and frontal area (Fai) asfunctions of irrigation water (Ir) for H. ammodendron (I) and C. karshiskii (II) under three salt concentrations of irrigation water in 2007 and 2008

    Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Irrig. and Drain. 61: 107115 (2012,

    ,H3= -0.0017Ir 2 + 1.32Ir - 185 R2= 0.892H7= -0.008Ir 2 + 4.37Ir - 533 R2= 0.906H12= -0.0088Ir 2 + 3.35Ir - 256 R2= 0.657

    2008

    ))

  • 8930

    007

    (

    112 M. HU ET AL.H3= -0.013Ir 2 + 6.94Ir - 843 R2= 0.867H7= -0.0023Ir 2 + 1.05Ir - 85.96 R2= 0.H12= -0.006Ir 2 + 2.30Ir - 191 R2= 0.92

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    Heig

    ht (cm

    )3g/L7g/L

    12g/L2same way, the final level of root zone soil salinity decreasedwith increasing irrigation water quantities (except for apossible increase where relatively insufficient water quan-tities were applied), decreasing initial level of soil salinityand salt concentration of the irrigation water. For the case ofplant biomass and water application, there was a positiveeffect of further increases in water application on biomassproduction after some minimum application, but its effectbecame smaller as more water was applied, which was

    00 100 200B3= -0.0058Ir 2 + 3.01Ir - 3527 R2= 0.887

    B7= -0.0027Ir 2 + 1.08Ir - 81.98 R2= 0.914

    B12= -0.0071Ir 2 + 2.67Ir - 227 R2= 0.950

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    0 100 200

    Bra

    nch

    le

    ngt

    h (cm

    )

    Cd3= -0.010Ir 2 + 5.22Ir - 635 R2= 0.895

    Cd7= -0.0045Ir 2 + 1.86Ir - 166 R2= 0.979

    Cd12= -0.0047Ir 2 + 1.86Ir - 161 R2= 0.909

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    0 100 200

    Ca

    no

    py d

    iam

    eter

    (cm

    )

    2007

    2007

    Fa3= -0.23Ir 2 + 133Ir - 16797 R2= 0.826

    Fa7= -0.19Ir 2 + 82.64Ir - 7156 R2= 0.935

    Fa12= -0.70Ir 2 + 259Ir - 22516 R2= 0.949

    0

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    0 200

    Fro

    nta

    l are

    a (cm

    2 )

    Irriga

    2007

    100

    Figure 1. Con

    Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.H3= -0.002Ir 2 + 1.47Ir - 184 R2= 0.945

    H7= -0.0028Ir 2 + 1.64Ir - 186 R2= 0.893

    H12= -0.0018Ir 2 + 0.73Ir - 43.08R2= 0.875

    2008

    )usually defined as the positivediminishing marginalproductivity zone on the production surface.Eventually, however, as more water was irrigated it may

    cause aeration and salinity problems (in the case of overirrigation and if drainage was restricted) and loss of yield (thezone where this occurs was characterized by a negativemarginal productivity). The more Na+ ions were adsorbed,the higher the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of irrigationwater (van de Graaff and Patterson, 2001). If continually

    0 100 200 300B3= -0.0045Ir 2 + 2.75Ir - 352 R2= 0.866

    B7= -0.0033Ir 2 + 1.82Ir - 217 R2= 0.833

    B12= -0.0052Ir 2 + 1.68Ir - 111R2= 0.886

    0 100 200 300Cd3= -0.0049Ir 2 + 2.98Ir - 381 R2= 0.947

    Cd7= -0.0037Ir 2 + 2.02Ir - 232 R2= 0.848

    Cd12= -0.0022Ir 2 + 0.90Ir - 48.29R2= 0.948

    0 100 200 300

    2008

    2008

    tion (mm)

    Fa3= -0.88Ir 2 + 534Ir - 70854R2= 0.916

    Fa7= -0.31Ir 2 + 179Ir - 20955R2 = 0.871

    Fa12= -0.34Ir 2 + 116Ir - 7068 R2= 0.848

    0 300

    2008

    200100

    tinued

    Irrig. and Drain. 61: 107115 (2012)

  • ydraulic properties (Brady, 1990; Bronick and Lal, 2005).

    Such behavior had been observed in many biologicaexperiments (Dinar et al., 1991; Singh et al., 2009) and wasalso explained by the classical theory of production (Russeland Wilkinson, 1979). This relationship had also beenfound by Letey and Dinar (1986) and Dinar and Knapp(1986) to work well for relating yield and water quality andquantity, and for relating the final level of soil salinity andwater quality and quantity. Economic theory assumed thathe rational producer, if free to choose, would not producein the zone of negative marginal productivity.

    Frontal area

    The frontal area was the aboveground barrier againsstraightforward wind blow, and was influenced by theinteraction of quantity and quality of irrigation water(Table IV). The Ir/OPE derivative of quadratic functionsin Table IV indicated that ReFa of H. ammodendron andC. karshiskii increased asymptotically with applied water upto the Ir/OPE ratio of 0.56 and 0.59, respectively. However

    able IV. The quadratic and square root functions of relative annual iranch length (ReB), canopy diameter (ReCd) and frontal area (ReFa) u

    lant Functions

    . ammodendron ReH= 1.63Ir/OPE0.22(Ir/OPE)2+ 0.094C0.ReB= 2.22Ir/OPE1.29(Ir/OPE)2+ 0.029C0.ReCd= 2.97Ir/OPE1.96(Ir/OPE)2+ 0.068C0ReFa= 3.04Ir/OPE2.72(Ir/OPE)2+ 0.035C0ReH= 1.99Ir/OPE0.85(Ir/OPE)0.50.083C+ 0.57C 0.26(Ir/OPE) C 0.927 58.15**ReB= 0.43Ir/OPE + 0.76(Ir/OPE)0.5 + 0.0017C 0.5 0.5 0.5

    ReCd= 0.92Ir/OPE+ 0.73(Ir/OPE)0.50.035CReFa= 0.49Ir/OPE+1.59(Ir/OPE)0.50.003C+

    . karshiskii ReH= 3.45Ir/OPE3.16(Ir/OPE)20.021C + 0.ReB= 4.23Ir/OPE3.58(Ir/OPE)20.070C+ 0.ReCd= 2.87Ir/OPE0.71(Ir/OPE)20.027C+ 0ReFa= 2.75Ir/OPE2.32(Ir/OPE)20.022C+ 0ReH= 0.08Ir/OPE+ 1.56(Ir/OPE)0.5+ 0.010CReB= 0.39Ir/OPE+ 2.91(Ir/OPE)0.5+ 0.098CReCd= 1.34Ir/OPE+ 1.47(Ir/OPE)0.5+ 0.081CReFa= 0.0031Ir/OPE + 0.85(Ir/OPE)0.50.008

    otes: 1. ** significance level P< 0.01. 2. The unit of salt concentration (C) wa

    Table III. The quantity of irrigation water (Ir mm) calculated whenthe annual increment of H. ammodendron and C. karshiskii inheight (H cm), branch length (B cm), canopy diameter (Cd cm) andfrontal area (Fa cm2) reached the maximum under three salineconcentrations based on the quadratic regressions fitted to theexperimental data in 2007 and 2008

    Salinity(g l1)

    H B Cd Fa

    H. ammodendron2007 3 346 384 350 349

    7 317 308 298 29112 229 220 224 237

    2008 3 388 443 376 4147 273 275 281 27712 190 205 202 199

    C. karshiskii2007 3 267 259 261 289

    7 228 200 207 21712 192 188 198 185

    2008 3 368 306 304 3037 293 276 273 28912 203 162 205 171

    113USE OF SALINE WATER FOR IRRIGATING SHELTERBELT PLANTSh

    Tb

    P

    H

    C

    Nirrigated with water rich in Na+ ions, the adsorbedmultivalent ions (such as Ca2+, Al3+, Fe3+) in the soil wouldgradually be replaced by adsorbed Na+. When this happened,the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and hence thesodicity, increased. Monovalent ions like sodium were lesseffective in neutralizing the charge on the colloid andpreventing swelling and dispersion than bivalent or trivalentions, thus individual colloid particles continued to repel eachother and stay in solution, causing deterioration of the soilCopyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.+ 0.04C 0.02(Ir/OPE) C 0.932 63.44**+ 0.39C0.50.52(Ir/OPE)0.5C0.5 0.947 81.35**0.10C0.50.20(Ir/OPE)0.5C0.5 0.926 57.18**0009C20.04(Ir/OPE)C 0.945 78.94**0042C20.03(Ir/OPE)C 0.965 126.79**.0031C20.074(Ir/OPE)C 0.928 58.84**.0017C20.074(Ir/OPE)C 0.919 52.25**0.12C0.50.05(Ir/OPE)0.5C0.5 0.945 79.34**0.52C0.50.12(Ir/OPE)0.5C0.5 0.965 126.82**0.24C0.50.39(Ir/OPE)0.5C0.5 0.928 58.81**C0.15C0.5+ 0.39(Ir/OPE)0.5C0.5 0.919 51.83**

    s g l1.the rate of increase in ReFa with Ir/OPE and the maximumpossible frontal area were defined by the salt concentration(C) of the irrigation water, the symmetry for Ir/OPE had anegative correlation with C, and the symmetry ofH. ammodendron decreased more quickly with the increaseof C than that of C. karshiskii, which was consistent with theforegoing data (Table III). Similarly, the C derivative of thequadratic function reflected the reducing rate of ReFa withC. Caragana karshiskii had a negative derivative, and itsfrontal area decreased absolutely with the increase of C;meanwhile the derivative of H. ammodendron was close tozero in the experimental levels of C and Ir/OPE ratio, and its

    ncrement of H. ammodendron and C. karshiskii in height (ReH),nder saline water irrigation in 2007 and 2008

    R2 Fvalue

    0039C20.11(Ir/OPE)C 0.925 57.10**0006C20.03(Ir/OPE)C 0.931 62.42**.0017C20.18(Ir/OPE)C 0.944 77.05**.0005C20.10(Ir/OPE)C 0.922 54.49**

    0.5 0.5 0.5Irrig. and Drain. 61: 107115 (2012l

    l

    t

    t

    ,)

  • rate of increase with increased quantities of applied water were

    (Fabaceae). Journal of Arid Environments 70: 174182. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2006.12.004

    114 M. HU ET AL.clearly defined by the salinity. Rainfall with less saltconcentration was likely to obviate the disadvantageouseffects of salt input along with irrigation water.The quadratic and square root functions can describe the

    statistically significant separate and interactive effects of inputwater quality and quantity on plant height, branch length,canopy diameter and frontal area of bothH. ammodendron andC. karshiskii. The frontal area of C. karshiskii increased withamount of irrigation water but decreased with amount of saltresulting from irrigation water; however, H. ammodendrondid not significantly decrease with salt concentration when itwas less than 12 g l1. Based on the quadratic regressions fittedto the experimental data, the befitting quantities of irrigationwater with different salt concentrations for the two shrubs canbe generated. These values should provide some guidelines inthe management of wind shelterbelt vegetation and salinewater resources.

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    We are grateful for the research grants from the NationalNatural Science Foundation of China (40771034,50809072), the National High Technology Research andfrontal area decreased insignificantly with C (Table II).Salinity slightly affected the growth of H. ammodendron

    compared to that of C. karshiskii when irrigated with salinewater, indicating that H. ammodendron had stronger saltresistance. Some studies also indicated thatH. ammodendronexhibited halophyte characteristics, stem succulence andhaving a salt gland (Dong et al., 2003; Xu et al., 1999).Leaf or stem succulence (i.e. high water content) for theregulation of internal ion concentrations and accumulatingions for osmoregulation was an adaptative feature to adaptto saline environments for many halophytes in the familyChenopodiaceae, allowing them have optimal growth inthe presence of salt (Song et al., 2006; Tester andDavenport, 2003). Short and Colmer (1999) reported thatsucculence in Halosarcia pergranulata subsp. pergranulataincreased slightly as the NaCl concentration rose from 10 to400mol m3. Patel and Pandey (2007) reported the growth ofCassia montana was stimulated by salt and optimum growthwas at 7.9 dS m1 of salinity, due to its osmotic adjustmentand increased leaf area. That was good news for theestablishment of a shelterbelt which held some marginalquality water.

    CONCLUSIONS

    During the twoyear experiments with the twomost prominentshelterbelt shrubs, H. ammodendron and C. karshiskii, wefound that H. ammodendron had a stronger salt tolerance thanC. karshiskii. The possible maximum biomasses as well as theCopyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Russell RR, Wilkinson M. 1979. Microeconomics a Synthesis of Modernand Neoclassical Theory. Wiley: New York.

    Short DC, Colmer TD. 1999. Salt tolerance in the halophyte Halosarciapergranulata subsp. pergranulata. Annals of Botany 83: 207213.doi:10.1006/anbo.1998.0812Development Program of China (863 Program,2006AA100203), Program 2008011042 supported by theMinistry of Water Resources of China and the Hong KongResearch Grants Council (HKBU 262708).

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    115USE OF SALINE WATER FOR IRRIGATING SHELTERBELT PLANTSCopyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Irrig. and Drain. 61: 107115 (2012)

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