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2012VALUATION tude dvaluation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de lUEMOA (2002-2009) Evaluation Study on French Support for Regional Integration in West Africa: the Case of WAEMU (2002-2009) MINISTRE DE L'CONOMIE, DES FINANCES ET DE L'INDUSTRIEMINISTRE DES AFFAIRES TRANGRES ET EUROPENNESTUDE DVALUATION DES APPUIS FRANAIS LINTGRATION RGIONALE EN AFRIQUE DE LOUEST : LE CAS DE LUEMOA (2002-2009)EVALUATION STUDY ON FRENCH SUPPORT FOR REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN WEST AFRICA: THE CASE OF WAEMU (2002-2009)MINISTRE DE LCONOMIE, DES FINANCES ET DE LINDUSTRIEDirection gnrale du TrsorService des affaires multilatrales et du dveloppement, unit dvaluation des activits de dveloppementMINISTRE DES AFFAIRES TRANGRES ET EUROPENNESDirection gnrale de mondialisation, du dveloppement et des partenariatsService des programmes et du rseau, ple de lvaluationvaluation ralise par C2G Conseil :Evaluation carried out by C2G Conseil:Louis MendrasEugne MampassiFabrice AlcandreSynthse du rapport (franais et anglais)Summary of the report (French and English)Rapport remis en avril 2011Report handed in in April 2011Ce document est la synthse dun rapport tabli la demandedu ministre des Affaires trangres et europennes, et du ministre de l'conomie, des Finances et de l'Industrie.Les analyses et commentaires dvelopps nengagent que leurs auteursRemerciementsLes auteurs tiennent ici remercier lensemble des interlocuteurs rencontrs pour leur disponibilit et la qualit de leurs contributions.Le CD-Rom joint contient le rapport complet de lvaluation. Tous droits d'adaptation, de traduction et de reproduction par tous procds, Conception graphique couverture : Direction gnrale du TrsorConception graphique intrieur : DGM Impression : service de reprographie du MAEEMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennes, et ministre de l'conomie, des Finances et de l'Industrie, 2012ISBN : 978-2-11-098747-1 ISSN : 1249-48443valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennesTABLE DES MATIRESNote de synthse ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4Avant-propos ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 51. Contexte, champ et objectifs de ltude ............................................................................................................................ 72. Analyse et valuation des interventions ........................................................................................................................... 93. Principales conclusions et recommandations .......................................................................................................... 17Grille d'apprciation des travaux des consultants ...................................................................................................... 23Membres du comit de pilotage ................................................................................................................................................. 254valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennesNOTE DE SYNTHSELa prsente note rappelle les objectifs de ltude et reprend les principales conclusions et recommandations de ce rapport. Elle est conue pour tre lue indpendamment du reste du rapport et comporte une rapide prsentation des donnes gnrales et chiffres les plus pertinentes pour la comprhension du sujet.5valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennesAVANT-PROPOSLa Direction gnrale du Trsor du minis-tre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrie (MINEFI) et la Direction gnrale de la mondialisation, du dveloppement et des parte-nariats (DGM) du ministre des Affaires tran-gres et europennes (MAEE) ont lanc en mars 2010 lvaluation des appuis de la coop-ration franaise lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest sur la priode 2002-2009. Cette tude a pour principal objet dvaluer les actions de coopration conduites par la France dans les-pace de lUnion conomique et montaire ouest-africaine (UEMOA) travers les trois instruments quelle a mobiliss (aide budgtaire globale, pro-jets et assistance technique).Cette tude a t ralise conformment aux prin-cipes dvaluation du Comit daide au dveloppe-ment (CAD) de lOrganisation de coopration et de dveloppement conomiques (OCDE). Elle sins-crit dans le cadre des engagements internationaux franais relatifs la ralisation des Objectifs du millnaire pour le dveloppement (OMD).Cre en 1994, lUEMOA a pour missions princi-pales dassurer la stabilit macroconomique de ses pays membres, dinstituer une union douanire et, appuye sur lunion montaire pr-existante, dapprofondir lintgration conomique en tablissant un march commun ouvert et concurrentiel. Les appuis franais lUEMOA se composent, dune part, dune aide budgtaire Programme conomique rgional (PER) sur la priode 2006-2010 et, dautre part, dun appui au travers du Fonds de solidarit prioritaire (FSP) et dune assistance technique aux institu-tions rgionales. Il est noter que tous ces -ment avec la Commission de lUEMOA et ont directement abond son budget.Un comit de pilotage compos de reprsen-tants des diffrentes administrations et agences concernes (ministre de lconomie, des Finances et de lindustrie, ministre des Affaires tran-gres et europennes, Agence franaise de dveloppement, Commission de lUEMOA) et constitu. Aprs un appel doffres, le comit indpendant C2G. Lvaluation souligne la pertinence et la coh-rence des appuis franais lUEMOA. Les ins-technique mobiliss sont conformes la strat-gie et aux objectifs de lUEMOA. La qualit du partenariat entre la France et la Commission de lUEMOA est juge satisfaisante par les consultants. Laide franaise a particulirement permis de renforcer les dpartements sectoriels de la Commission de lUEMOA et dacclrer lacquisition de nouvelles comptences telles que llaboration de politiques sectorielles communautaires. Lvaluation note cependant que les appuis fran-ais nont pas eu les effets de levier esprs dans la mesure o ils nont pas contribu, dimportants projets dinfrastructures structurant la dynamique communautaire, et ce malgr les par la France. De par sa nature, laide franaise ne sest pas porte sur certains enjeux cls de lUEMOA, comme les relations entre la Com-mission et les tats, la leve des obstacles lintgration conomique, la libre circulation des biens et des personnes, linstauration du march commun et lapplication du droit communautaire. 6valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennesLes principales recommandations formules par les consultants suggrent de renforcer et de -tion rgionale en termes dobjectifs, de moyens et de modalits dintervention. Il sagit daccen-leve des obstacles lintgration rgionale travers le futur PER 2 et de renforcer les effets de levier des appuis franais.En conclusion, ces rsultats encouragent le ren-forcement institutionnel du partenariat entre la France et lUEMOA et la poursuite des appuis franais ses politiques et ses programmes, une action par ailleurs cohrente avec limplica-tion de la France, travers la Zone franc, dans le volet montaire de lintgration rgionale.Bruno Cabrillac,Directeur des relations internationales et europennes, Banque de FrancePrsident du Comit de pilotage de lvaluation7valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennes1. CONTEXTE, CHAMP ET OBJECTIFS DE LTUDE1.1 ContexteLa France intervient auprs dinstitutions quelle a portes sur les fonts baptismaux et quelle accompagne dans leur dveloppement. La cration de lUnion conomique et montaire ouest-africaine (UEMOA), contemporaine de la dvaluation du franc CFA en janvier 1994, est principalement destine : assurer la stabilit et la viabilit du nouveau taux de change travers une stricte discipline macroconomique, faisant lobjet dune sur-veillance multilatrale au moyen du suivi dindicateurs de convergence inspirs de ceux du trait europen de Maastricht qui instituait lEuro ; instituer une union douanire ; parachever lintgration conomique en crant un march commun ouvert et concurrentiel, bas sur la libre circulation et le droit dtablis-sement dans toute lunion des personnes, ainsi que la libre circulation des biens, ser-vices et des capitaux.Les deux premires tapes ont t franchies res-pectivement en 1999 (adoption du pacte de stabi-lit) et en 2000 (union douanire). Ltape suivante tait la cration dun march commun. Les appuis franais qui font lobjet de la prsente valuation sinscrivent dans la perspective de cette troi--nition et mise en uvre de politiques et dun cadre juridique communs, dune part, ralisation dun ambitieux programme dinterconnexion des conomies (programme conomique rgional PER), dautre part.La ralisation dun march commun a t contre-carre par une srie de facteurs qui ont contribu assombrir lenvironnement conomique, au nombre desquels la crise ivoirienne, compte-tenu de la complmentarit de lconomie de ce pays avec les conomies de la sous-rgion et de sa contribution aux changes intra-rgionaux qui excdait alors 80 %. Le ralentissement de la croissance de lEurope, qui reste de loin le prin-cipal partenaire de la zone, a galement beau-coup pes. Ce contexte a raviv les tentations protectionnistes, a rvl un manque de solida-rit face aux crises, notamment la crise alimen-taire de 2008, tandis que des problmes de gouvernance, voire un manque de conviction des tats, entravaient lapplication de la rgle-mentation communautaire ainsi que la circulation des personnes et des biens.Quant au programme conomique rgional, il na pas t ralis de faon optimale. La rali-sation des infrastructures dinterconnexion accuse un retard important, et il ne lui a pas t donn priorit dans certains pays comme la Cte dIvoire. En outre, le PER sest concentr sur les infrastructures routires, sans tendre les infrastructures ferroviaires existantes pour les mettre en rseau, et na pas non plus anti-cip la crise nergtique actuelle, laquelle il sera fait face par lUEMOA dans le second PER travers la nouvelle Initiative rgionale pour lnergie durable (IRED). Les pays de lUEMOA restent donc terriblement sous-quips en comparaison non seulement du reste de la Communaut conomique des tats de lAfrique de lOuest (CEDEAO), mais aussi des autres pays bas revenu.8valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennes1.2 Objectifs et champs de lvaluationLobjectif global de ltude se formule deux niveaux : rtrospectif et prospectif.Au niveau rtrospectif, il sagissait de :1) valuer les actions dappui conduites par la France au travers des trois instruments quelle a mobiliss (ABG, FSP, dispositif dAT) en termes de choix et de rsultats en fonction (i) des objectifs de lUEMOA et (ii) de la politique franaise en matire dintgration rgionale ;2) sassurer de la bonne articulation des appuis franais lUEMOA, dune part avec les appuis franais aux pays membres et aux autres institutions rgionales, et dautre part avec les appuis des autres PTF lUEMOA ; 3) dterminer ladquation de chacun des instru-ments mobiliss en fonction (i) des capacits propres de linstitution, (ii) de la nature des actions menes ;4) tudier la synergie et la complmentarit avantages et contraintes propres.Au niveau prospectif, il sagissait de :5)appuis au second PER ;6) formuler des recommandations pour une opti-misation des appuis apports lUEMOA en des instruments ;7) formuler des axes pour la mise au point dune stratgie franaise dappui lintgra-tion rgionale en bonne articulation avec les appuis dploys auprs des pays.Le champ de lvaluation tait born la manire suivante : en termes temporels, la priode couverte tait celle de 2002 2009 ; en termes dobjet, elle concernait les appuis franais la Commission de lUEMOA dploys au travers : - des aides budgtaires globales destines signes en 2005, 2006 et 2007 pour un mon-- des appuis du projet FSP n2002-45 Appui au processus dintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest volet UEMOA, pour un montant de 4 M ;-objectifs par le MAEE, notamment en matire dassistance technique ; en termes gographiques, lvaluation sup-posait une apprhension globale de la zone UEMOA, mais avec un approfondissement du PER mens dans deux pays (Burkina Faso et Sngal).9valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennes2.1 Reconstitution du cadre logiqueLa reconstitution des instruments dana-lyse implicites (arbre des problmes, arbre des objectifs, diagramme du cadre logique) rvle quune combinaison de diffrents types dappuis porte sur les points dimpact slection-ns dans larbre des objectifs, avec des rsultats -2. ANALYSE ET VALUATION DES INTERVENTIONSRenforcement institutionnelC/UEMOA renforceCour comptes renforceSystme judiciaire renforcConvergence conomique et Amnagement du territoireTransports facilitsDveloppement ruralEnvironnementAmliorat. syst. santAml. sys. enseigt sup.Secteur priv, nergie, minesCommunication renforceConsolider les institutions rgionalesAmliorer la gouver-nance conomique & Harmoniser la lgislation des tats membresContribuer la mise en uvre des programmes prioritaires de lUEMOAPromouvoir la femmeSusciter ladhsion de la socit civileAT FSP ABGConvergence des politiques conomiquesRenforcement de la comptitivit des activits conomiques march commun, harmonisation des lgislationsCoordination des politiques sectorielles nationales : actions commune, politiques communes+ Renforcement du pilotage, de la gouvernance de la CUEMOAConception et mise en uvre des politiquesFormationEtude projetAppui projet ou programmeRalisation dinfrastructuresInvestissements de mise en valeur agricoleIntrants (types dappui)Objectifs gnraux (daprs larticle 4 du Trait de lUEMOA)Points dimpact/rsultatsCombinaison dinterventions10valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennes2.2 Cartographie des interventionsEn suivant le diagramme du cadre logique de gauche droite :La ventilation par type dappuis volue entre le FSP et lABG, avec le passage la phase de ralisation des projets dinfrastructure (hydraulique villageoise essentiellement) et de mise en uvre agricole. Toutefois, compte tenu du changement dchelle entre FSP (moins de 4 millions d) et ABG (100 millions d), le sous-total des interventions hors projets, et notamment la composante renforcement institutionnel , sils diminuent en valeur relative entre le FSP et lABG, augmentent en valeur absolue.Par point dimpact sectoriel, le dveloppement rural se taille la part du lion, suivi par les transports routiers, lappui au secteur priv, le renforcement des institutions, lenvironnement, lenseignement et la recherche, la convergence conomique et saupoudrage. Toutefois, limpression de sau-poudrage serait attnue par linclusion des montants au titre de lassistance technique.Dveloppement ruralTransports routiersSecteur privRenforcement des institutionsEnvironnementEnseignement & rechercheConvergence conomique et financiresCommerceTransport arienSant-pharmacieAmnagement du territoirenergieMinesCommunication Transp. internationaux maillon maritimeTICMutualit sociale5 000 000 000 0 10 000 000 000 15 000 000 000 20 000 000 000 25 000 000 000 30 000 000 000 35 000 000 000 FSPABGVentilation des points dimpact de laide11valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennesAutre fait intressant : le dplacement des points dimpact privilgis entre le FSP et lABG.0 %10 %20 %30 %40 %50 %60 %70 %80 %90 %100 %Hors FSPFSPABGDveloppement ruralTransports routiersSecteur privRenforcement des institutionsEnvironnementEnseignement & rechercheConvergence conomique et financiresCommerceTransport arienSant-pharmacieAmnagement du territoirenergieMinesCommunication Transp. internationaux maillon maritimeTICDveloppement rural 10 %Transports routiers4 %Secteur priv7 %Renforcement des institutions22 %Environnement4 %Enseignement & recherche1 %Convergence conomique et financire20 %Sant - pharmacie8 %Amnagement du territoire7 %nergie6 %Mines5 %Communication4 %Transports internationaux maillon maritime2 %Autre24 %ComTrintermailDplacement des points d'impact entre FFSP en ABGFSP12valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennes Modalit d'intervention Politiques sectorielles ABG FSP Hors FSP Total gnral Amlioration de l'environnement 3 675 598 975 3 675 598 975 Amnagement du territoire 158 513 500 158 513 500 Convergence conomique 1 481 821 614 473 442 000 1 955 263 614 nergie 136 784 000 136 784 000 Industrie 6 942 073 909 168 991 442 7 111 065 351 Mines 115 397 500 115 397 500 Politique agricole de l'Union (PAU) 31 710 820 735 335 115 079 32 045 935 814 Promotion du march commun 1 141 301 664 1 141 301 664 Renforcement institutionnel 4 846 126 675 627 023 970 5 473 150 645 Social et culturel 3 436 456 804 222 219 430 7 200 000 3 665 876 234 Tlcommunications et TIC 12 487 195 12 487 195 Transport 12 349 032 629 291 376 000 360 776 350 13 001 184 979 Total gnral 65 595 720 200 2 528 862 921 367 976 350 68 492 559 471 Dveloppement rural 48 %Transports routiers 19 %Secteur priv11 %Renforcement des institutions7 %Environnement6 %Enseignement & recherche 5 %Convergence conomique et financires2 %Commerce2 %Sant - pharmacie0 %TIC0 %Autre4 %oppement rural routiers%7 %EnEnsSaABGVentilation des points dimpact de laide (donnes en FCFA)13valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennesOn note une meilleure slectivit des interven-tions et une meilleure concentration sur un nombre plus limit de points dimpact avec lABG. Les points dimpact suivants sont abandonns : amnagement du territoire, nergie, mines, communication, transports ariens et transports internationaux maillon maritime. Notons toute-assistance technique non chiffre et dun FSP SIGAfrique non compris dans le primtre dana-lyse. Notons aussi que le secteur de lnergie va, compter de lABG 2010, recevoir une attention et des moyens croissants de la part de la France.Sagissant de la ventilation par objectifs sp- le FSP se concentrait sur 3 axes : renforcement institutionnel ; politiques sectorielles ( travers trois objectifs -ser la lgislation et mettre en uvre des pro-jets et des programmes).Des actions dun faible montant ont t consa-cres la promotion de lgalit hommes-femmes et susciter ladhsion de la socit civile. LABG se situe dans la continuit du FSP. Elle poursuit le renforcement institutionnel et lhar-monisation des lgislations (en leur consacrant des moyens moins importants en pourcentage, mais plus importants en valeur absolue). Surtout, elle poursuit la mise en uvre des poli-tiques sectorielles, principalement sous forme de projets.Les actions en vue de ladhsion de la socit civile et de la promotion de lgalit hommes-femmes ne sont pas retenues dans lABG.Synergies utilisesOn observe : une synergie des interventions avec les domaines couverts par certains assistants techniques durant cette priode (macroco-nomie, dveloppement rural, sant) ;Amlioration de la gouvernance conomique et financire 13 %Consolider les institutions rgionales, pour mener bien leurs missions et pour une pleine efficacit de lappui franais. Renforcer les rgles et moyens dintervention des organes de lunion 27 %Contribuer la mise en uvre de programmes prioritaires de lUEMOA, notamment dans le domaine des politiques sectorielles 48 %Harmonisation de la lgislation des Etats membres 2 %Appuyer la formulation des politiques6 %Promotion de la femme1 %Susciter ladhsion de la socit civile3 %Ventilation du FSP par objectif14valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennes une synergie avec dautres FSP. Ainsi, dans le domaine du dveloppement rural : Ren-forcement de lapproche rgionale dans le partenariat Europe-Afrique sur le coton et Actions rgionales pour la qualit dans le secteur agro-alimentaire en Afrique , dans le domaine minier (projet SIGAfrique), dans le domaine de la sant (appui la politique pharmaceutique) ; une complmentarit des interventions du FSP avec certains projets du PER, que ces inter-ventions ont contribu prparer.2.3 valuation des interventionsLes interventions ont t values selon une grille standard, avec des questions exprimes dans les termes de rfrence. Pour rpondre chaque question, des critres de jugement ont t formuls.PertinenceQuel est le bien fond des orientations suivies et des choix effectus ? L'aide apporte par la France appuie-t-elle le processus d'intgration rgionale ?La question du bien fond de lappui franais et de sa contribution lintgration conomique doit sapprcier des points de vue de la construction et de la consolidation des institu-tions concernes, des politiques conomiques suivies et des programmes visant cette intgra-tion (daprs nos termes de rfrence).Sagissant de la consolidation des institutions concernes, laide franaise a renforc plusieurs dpartements de la Commission, et la Cour des comptes. Elle a accompagn la Commission dans une nouvelle vocation de gestion de projets. Elle -gique et le CBMT de la Commission.Sagissant des politiques conomiques suivies, laide franaise a contribu au processus de 5 %63 %4 %9 %19 %Construire un appareil productif intgrDvelopper les ressources humainesPartenariat pour la mobilisation des ressources et le suivi-valuationBonne gouvernance et approfondissement de l'intgration conomiqueRhabilitation et modernisation des infrastructures physiques5 % 9 %eil rces humaines de l'intgration 15valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennesconvergence conomique, lharmonisation des en uvre des politiques sectoriellesSagissant des programmes visant cette intgra-France (Programme dappui aux centres dex-cellence rgionaux [PACER], Programme de renforcement et de mise niveau des entre-prises [PRMN], hydraulique villageoise) poursui-indirectement lintgration rgionale.De faon gnrale, lappui franais a t align sur les objectifs gnraux du trait de lUEMOA. Cet alignement tait garanti par (i) limplication franaise dans la prparation du trait de lUEMOA ; (ii) la dmarche participative qui a prsid llaboration du FSP. La France a ensuite accompagn la mise en uvre du PER dcide en 2006.dattention : le dialogue de la Commission avec les tats ; la circulation des personnes et des biens ; lapplication du droit communautaire.On note que, l o la France est intervenue, les problmes de fonds nont pas toujours t atta-qus de front, ou pas de faon vigoureuse : gnralement parce que les solutions nces-sitent une implication beaucoup plus forte des tats (environnement des affaires, pratiques anormales, ouverture de certains marchs nationaux la concurrence) sagissant des infrastructures dintercon-nexion, parce quelles nont pas occup dans lexcution du PER la part dominante qui tait prvue.-dans la transparence, selon un bon rythme dexcution et un cot raisonnable, et y ont-ils apport les moyens et lattention quils mritaient ?La France, en acceptant de faire excuter les Commission de lUEMOA au titre de lABG et des FSP suivant les procdures de lUEMOA, a pris le soin de mettre en place des rgles spci-de garantir une bonne mise en uvre du PER. Lvaluation a conclu que ses objectifs ont t atteints. Paralllement, la France a soutenu la C/UEMOA dans la remise en cause de son dispositif institutionnel et de gestion antrieur 2007 et a prpar ses cadres une adaptation rationnelle au nouvel environnement de rformes selon la logique de rsultats) travers ses appuis au renforcement des capacits. Lvolu-tion de la situation par rapport lexcution des que la France avait raison de faire ce choix.Coordination, complmentarit, cohrenceUn (des) cadre(s) dharmonisation des appuis entre chelon rgional et chelon national a(ont)-t-ils opr de faon satisfaisante?niveaux : coordination Commission-tats; coor-dination de lUEMOA avec la CEDEAO et les autres OIG ; coordination inter-bailleurs ; coordi-nation des interventions franaises au niveau rgional et au niveau national, et entre MAEE et AFD. Les diffrents problmes mentionns sont pour beaucoup dans : la mauvaise gestion du cycle du projet, les duplications dactivit, le faible taux de ralisation du PER 1 et labsence de systme de suivi global ; le faible effet de levier de lappui franais.Larticulation rgional-national devient cruciale pour la bonne mise en uvre des politiques communautaires au niveau des tats, qui devra lavenir retenir toute lattention des parties prenantes.Les interventions ont-elles apport les prin-cipaux rsultats attendus dans les domaines clef ?Les interventions taient bien prpares et ont apport des rsultats formuls en termes 16valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennesmentionnons la ralisation dun plan stratgique de dveloppement de linformatique, le recrute-ment dexperts, des formations, la toilettage la formulation et/ou la mise en uvre de poli-tiques sectorielles et de programmes dans les domaines de lagriculture, de la gestion de leau et de lenvironnement, des infrastructures et des transports routiers, de la sant et de la pharmacie, de lenseignement suprieur et de la recherche, de la mise niveau des entreprises, du transport arien. Les coups dclairage sectoriels ont per-des prestations.Les interventions ont-elles fait appel aux meilleures pratiques, en conformit notam-ment avec les principes de la dclaration de Paris ?La qualit du dialogue et du partenariat tabli avec lUEMOA est indniable, selon les critres dappropriation (mesure laune des initiatives prises et de la force de proposition manifeste), dalignement sur les stratgies et les procdures de linstitution. Par contre, les donateurs ne rem-plissent pas le critre dharmonisation de leurs procdures, et la gestion axe sur les rsultats, adopte par la Commission, doit encore devenir dans le domaine de la responsabilit mutuelle (le partenariat est quelque peu dsquilibr, avec plus dobligations de la part de la commis-sion que de la part de la France).ImpactLappui franais a-t-il contribu dynamiser lintgration rgionale et renforcer les insti-Les montants des appuis franais nont pas eu assez deffet de levier pour exercer un impact destins au programme conomique rgional. -ch, mais ils taient de petite chelle, tandis que les grands projets dinfrastructure desquels un puissant effet dentranement est attendu accusent un retard important. Les interventions ont renforc les institutions. La France a particip travers la ligne de renforce-de lintervention du PNUD sur les aspects strat-giques, a appuy la gestion du PER, tandis que ses exigences concernant lexcution des inter--bu renforcer linstitution. Elle a plac des assistants techniques aux lieux clefs pour ses propres interventions, et la mission a recueilli plusieurs tmoignages de compagnonnage russi et de bon travail en quipe avec les cadres de la faite du recrutement dexperts nationaux tra-vers le FSP et au travers de la ligne de renforce-ment des capacits de lABG, qui ont acclr lacquisition de comptences par la Commis-sion. La plupart de ces experts ont vu leur contrat renouvel ou ont t titulariss.DurabilitUne stratgie dattnuation des risques est-elle mise en uvre, avec lappui franais ?La durabilit fait partie du plan stratgique 2011-2020 de lUEMOA, qui inclut une stratgie dattnuation des risques et a t prpar avec plan stratgique a t prsent au Conseil des ministres de lUEMOA en octobre 2010. Le processus de convergence, par la stabilit correspond au volet macroconomique de la stratgie dattnuation des risques. Le systme franais aux projections macroconomiques et aux analyses de sensibilit.Par contre, la France na que marginalement appuy le systme de surveillance de la poli-tique commerciale des tats membres, plutt de la responsabilit dautres partenaires du dve-loppement. Les acquis de lunion douanire sont menacs par le recours des pratiques restric-tives, voire illicites, la hausse des protections cordon douanier, et une gestion peu cooprative de la crise alimentaire de 2008-2009.17valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennesLaide franaise ne sest pas porte sur cer-tains problmes de fond, qui doivent retenir toute lattention : lunion douanire na pas instaur un march commun en raison de la persistance dobstacles la circulation des personnes et des biens ; la fragilit de certains tats, et parfois le manque de volont politique, handicapent la mise en uvre des rformes communautaires ; les conomies ne sont pas soutenues par une dynamique dintgration rgionale, souffrent dun manque de comptitivit et restent peu attractives en dehors des secteurs de rente, restent trs exposes aux chocs exognes et croissent moins vite que les autres conomies dAfrique subsaharienne.Stratgie dinterventionLa France manque dune stratgie dappui lin-tgration rgionale. Objectifs, moyens et modali--ventions passes.Par ailleurs, larticulation entre les interventions franaises au niveau rgional et au niveau natio--pltant les documents-cadre de partenariat avec les tats par un document quivalent avec les deux communauts rgionales.Coordination des politiques conomiquesLes progrs en matire de convergence cono-de la dette publiques) demeurent nanmoins fra--ses aux chocs exognes. Ces progrs ne sac-compagnent pas dune amlioration notable de lintgration rgionale ni des politiques commer-pourquoi le primtre de surveillance multilat-rale doit inclure la politique commerciale comme le processus dintgration, au moyen dindica-teurs ddis.Politiques sectorielles et impact des interventions franaisesmise en uvre des politiques sectorielles a t une attente. Elle a renforc les dpartements sectoriels de la Commission (sous forme de transferts de savoir-faire et de recrutements). Pourtant, limpact est parfois dcevant : ainsi, la politique agricole et de dveloppement rural qui a mobilis les moyens les plus importants, na pas dbouch sur un dcollage de la produc-tion, laquelle a du mal suivre la croissance certains tats, comme le Burkina Faso, lancent leur rvolution verte .3. PRINCIPALES CONCLUSIONS ET RECOMMANDATIONS18valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennesLnorme travail sur lharmonisation des politiques et des rglementations, appuy par la France, se traduit plus en textes quen rsultats, par sensibilisation au niveau des tats (exceptions : Les politiques communautaires mriteraient une valuation indpendante. Ces politiques doivent sattaquer aux problmes de fond, qui sont sou-vent transversaux par nature : la priorit est de lever les diffrents freins la croissance de la zone UEMOA (facilitation des affaires [y compris la scurit juridique], circulation des personnes et des biens, comptitivit, cots des facteurs, attractivit, dcloisonnement des marchs et leur ouverture la concurrence, rattrapage en matire dinfrastructures et de capital humain). Les entraves persistantes la circulation des biens et des personnes, alors que la crise conomique et alimentaire a multipli les tentations protection-nistes, sopposent toujours la rgionalisation des marchs et des chanes de valeur. Les approches transversales doivent prvaloir, y compris dans la -nes vers la normalisation et la qualit (y compris sanitaire), domaines o la France est dj inter-venue, mais galement vers la gouvernance des secteurs, leur ouverture la concurrence, le dmantlement des monopoles publics et privs. Ceci tant, les secteurs doivent rester les points dimpact privilgis des rformes, les lieux de leur concrtisation.La priorit est de construire un consensus politique sur ces questions, lies par ailleurs au bon droule-ment du programme dinfrastructure. Linfrastruc-entre les pays, ne ft-ce qu cause de la dpen-dance quelle implique vis--vis des voisins pour des ressources cl comme leau et llectricit .1 Programme conomique rgional (PER)nont pas eu leffet de levier dsir, tandis que les grand projets dinfrastructure, qui devaient constituer la part la plus importante du PER et doper les conomies par le rattrapage opr, dmarrent peine. On tirera les leons de lva-luation mi-parcours du PER 1 (2006-10) pour remdier aux problmes diagnostiqus et conce-voir puis mettre en uvre le PER 2 sur de bonnes bases2, en utilisant au mieux les comp-tences disponibles en matire de gestion du cycle du projet au niveau de la BOAD, et en sappuyant davantage sur cette dernire pour -cements, notamment en provenance des autres banques de dveloppement.Laide franaise doit contribuer, directement ou indirectement, au rattrapage du retard en matire dinfrastructures dinterconnexion, qui constitue lun des enjeux majeurs pour la sous-rgion, notamment dans une optique dintgration rgionale.Qualit du partenariatLa qualit du partenariat entre la France et lUEMOA travers ces appuis est bonne, avec un respect des meilleures pratiques contenues dans les principes de la dclaration de Paris nanmoins ce partenariat est handicap par son caractre bilatral, et le maintien dune approche budgtaire, qui reste cibl, lappui de projets programme densemble) plutt que des poli-tiques rgionales, ou de la stratgie de la Com-mission. Lintensit du dialogue sur les politiques sen ressent.Larticulation entre les interventions des PTF La qualit du partenariat entre la France et la Commission de lUEMOA serait encore meilleure et davantage conforme aux meilleures pratiques dcoulant de lapplication des principes de la dclaration de Paris, si elle sexerait dans un cadre multilatral, autour dune plateforme com-mune convenue entre la Commission et ses par-tenaires, avec alignement sur la stratgie 1- Banque mondiale/ AFD : Infrastructures africaines : une transformation imprative , juin 2010 (page 141).tats ; inscrire des projets ayant dj fait lobjet dune tude de faisabilit technique et conomique ; du PER le FAIR, le FRDA, le FDE mais aussi les programmes rgionaux des bailleurs.19valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennesde linstitution, mise en pool des ressources ou seulement par la France, mais aussi par les autres partenaires, coordination de leurs appuis par la Commission, responsabilits mutuelles. La Commission, avec ladoption dun plan stra--cires associes la surveillance multilatrale, ladoption dune gestion axe sur les rsultats, mutation.3Le dialogue sur les politiques ncessite un systme de suivi et dvaluation. En liaison avec la prcdente recommandation, la France devrait appuyer la conception dun ensemble dindicateurs dintgration rgionale, largi dautres aspects que la seule convergence uvre du dispositif correspondant. Ce travail inspirerait utilement les autres communauts rgionales dAfrique.Coordination et coopration avec la CEDEAO, les organismes intergouvernementaux (OIG) et les tatsPour le succs des politiques sectorielles comme du PER, il faut : Jouer la carte rgionale: assurer une bonne articulation / coordination entre le PER2 et le Programme Communautaire de Dvelop-pement (PDC) que la CEDEAO est en train dlaborer, crer des marchs rgionaux dots dune supervision rgionale (pour lnergie, investissements ces marchs, et partant dassurer leur cohrence et doptimiser leur rentabilit conomique.En matire de politiques sectorielles, lenjeu est tant dans la coordination avec la CEDEAO que dans la coordination avec les institutions techniques rgionales, quelles soient ou non rattaches la CEDEAO (ex : CILSS, Afristat, agences de bassin, etc.). La France, prsente parfois au niveau des organes et le plus souvent techniquement auprs des multiples institutions rgionales, peut jouer de son coordination rgionale, notamment par le rseau des assistants techniques. Impliquer davantage les tats pour une bonne articulation entre volet rgional et volet natio-nal, pour dmanteler les monopoles publics et privs, amliorer la gouvernance externe des secteurs, tablir un systme inclusif de suivi-valuation.des tats, par un dialogue politique et par un accompagnement technique. Les progrs dans lapplication de la rglementation com-munautaire doivent faire lobjet dun suivi non plus ponctuel, mais rgulier. Laccompagne-ment des rformes communautaires au niveau des tats doit devenir un axe majeur et le point principal darticulation entre les actions au niveau rgional et au niveau national.Modalits et poursuite des interventionsPoursuite du renforcement institutionnelLes appuis franais ont contribu au renforce-ment des institutions. Ils ont acclr lacquisi-tion de nouvelles comptences. Ils ont soutenu llaboration et la mise en uvre de politiques sectorielles, un domaine que les autres parte-naires de la Commission ne couvraient pas. Ils accompagnent la Commission dans sa nou-velle vocation de gestion de projets, notamment -tgique en cours.Les assistants techniques franais, prsents dans de nombreux organismes rgionaux, doivent constitue le pivot. Toutefois, avec le renforcement de la Commission, leur prsence permanente -che des activits de substitution, et complte 3- Par analogie avec les trois conditions dligibilit lappui budgtaire gnral de la Commission Europenne : existence dun document de stratgie inclusif (DSRP), dun cadre macroconomique (programme avec le FMI) et dun plan de renforcement 20valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennespar des missions de conseil ponctuels, dautant plus que la Commission a lhabitude de, et sait travailler avec les consultants. Les assistants linstitution qui exerce le leadership dans leur domaine, soit auprs de linstitution spcialise qui joue le rle dagence dexcution.Le renforcement institutionnel est actuellement du dtachement dun cadre de lAFD Conseiller du Prsident pour le PER, un appui au renfor-cement de la cellule de gestion du PER et aux -sag. La conception dun nouveau projet sur fonds de solidarit prioritaire doit tenir compte des enseignements de lexcution du FSP 2002-45 : concentration sur une liste restreinte de priorits, procdures plus simples, limitation du nombre de tranches, de conventions et de dcaissements, contrle densemble mi-parcours et a posteriori par la Cour des comptes et non plus convention par convention.et des programmesrenforce sur la priode, institutionnellement Economique Rgional sont considrables, la partie sur ressources propres, et elle na pas jusqu prsent pour vocation de sendetter.21valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennes2IE ........................... Institut international de leau et de lenvironnement (Ouagadougou)ABG ........................ Aide budgtaire globale (Trsor franais/ AFD)ABV ......................... Autorit du bassin de la Volta (Ouagadougou)ACAME .................. Association africaine des centrales d'achat de mdicaments essentiels (Ouagadougou)AFD ......................... Agence franaise de dveloppement (France)AFRICATIP ...........AGETIPE ..............APE ........................ Accord de partenariat rgional (Commission europenne)AT ............................ Assistance techniqueBAD ........................ Banque africaine de dveloppementBCEAO .................. Banque centrale des tats de lAfrique de lOuestBID ......................... Banque interafricaine de dveloppement (institution de la CEDEAO)BOAD ..................... Banque ouest africaine de dveloppementBRVM ..................... Bourse rgionale des valeurs mobiliresCAMES .................. Conseil africain et malgache pour lenseignement suprieurCEDEAO ............... Communaut conomique des tats de lAfrique de lOuestCESAG ................. Centre africain d'tudes suprieures en gestion (Dakar)CREPMF ................CSLP ...................... Cadre stratgique de lutte contre la pauvretC/UEMOA ............. Commission de lUEMOACBMT ..................... Cadre budgtaire moyen termeCEFEB ................... Centre dtudes et de formation en conomie bancaireCILSS ..................... Comit permanent inter-tats de lutte contre la scheresse dans le SahelCIMA ....................... Confrence interafricaine des marchs dassuranceCNPE ..................... Comits nationaux de politique conomiqueCORAF................... Conseil ouest et centre africain pour la recherche et le dveloppement agricoleCRCA ..................... Conseil rgional de contrle des assurancesDCP ......................... Document cadre de partenariatDATC ...................... Direction de lamnagement du territoire communautaire, des transports et du tourisme (C/UEMOA)LISTE DES ACRONYMES22valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennesDDE ....................... Dpartement du dveloppement de lentreprise, des tlcommunications et de lnergie (C/UEMOA)DDRE .................... Dpartement du dveloppement, des ressources naturelles et de lenvironnement (C/UEMOA)DDSC .................... Dpartement du dveloppement social et culturel (C/UEMOA)DMRC .................... Direction du march rgional, du commerce, de la concurrence et de la coopration (C/UEMOA)DPE ........................DSAF ......................EISMV .................... cole inter-tats de mdecine vtrinaireFAIR ....................... Fonds dappui lintgration rgionaleFAO ......................... Organisation des Nations unies pour lalimentation et lagricultureFEER ...................... Fonds de l'eau et de l'quipement rural (Burkina Faso)FRDA ..................... Fonds rgional de dveloppement agricoleFDE ......................... Fonds de dveloppement de lnergieFSP ......................... Fonds de solidarit prioritaire (MAEE)IMOA/WAMI .......... Institut montaire ouest africainIRED ....................... Initiative rgionale pour l'nergie durable MAEE ..................... Ministre des Affaires trangres et europennes (France)MEIE ....................... Ministre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrie (France)MOD ........................ Matrise douvrage dlgueOIG ......................... Organisation intergouvernementaleOMS ........................ Organisation mondiale de la santPACER ................... Programme dappui aux centres dexcellence rgionauxPACITR .................. Programme daction communautaire des infrastructures et des transports routiersPAPED ................... Programme dappui et programme de lAPE pour le dveloppement (Commission europenne)PAU ......................... Politique agricole de lunion (UEMOA)PCD ......................... Programme de dveloppement communautaire (UEMOA)PER ......................... Programme conomique rgional (UEMOA)PIB .......................... Produit intrieur brutPIR .......................... Programme indicatif rgional (UE)PNUD .................... Programme des Nations unies pour le dveloppementPRMN .................... Programme de restructuration et de mise niveau de lindustrie des tats membres de lUEMOAPTF ........................ROPPA ................... Rseau des organisations paysannes et des producteurs agricoles dAfrique de lOuest (Ouagadougou)SCAC ...................... Service de coopration et daction culturelle (auprs des ambassades de France)SPIDS ..................... Syndicat professionnel des industries et des mines du SngalUEMOA .................. Union conomique et montaire ouest africaineUPS ......................... Unit de programmation stratgiqueZMOA/WAMZ ....... Zone montaire ouest-africaine23valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennesGRILLE D'APPRCIATION DES TRAVAUX DES CONSULTANTS44- Document standard de qualit ralis dans le cadre dun groupe de travail du rseau de lvaluation au dveloppement du CAD (Comit daide au dveloppement OCDE).Lapprciation du travail des valuateurs permet dapprcier pour chaque critre la performance du travail des valuateurs. Ainsi, chaque membre du comit de pilotage apprcie de manire personnelle et la plus impartiale pos-sible la qualit du travail fourni. Lensemble fera lobjet dune synthse agrge des notes per--lit et donc de pertinence des rsultats. En cas de dsaccords entre les membres du Comit, ils sont consigns dans les commentaires. La nota-tion collgiale permet de mettre en valeur les points focaux, cest--dire les ventuels points de clivage de laction value. Ce faisant, cette grille permet dapporter une dmarche objective face une perception subjective de la qualit dune valuation.Rsultat gnral : 4,0/5objectifs de lvaluation Note : 4,0/5Le rapport indique pourquoi et pour qui lvalua-tion est entreprise, et pourquoi ce moment-l. Le but de lvaluation est conforme lapprentis-ce que lvaluation se propose datteindre.2. Le champ de lvaluation Note : 4,0/5Le domaine dtude est clairement dtermin dintervention, couverture gographique, groupes cibles). Le rapport dvaluation ana-lyse la logique dintervention et tablit les consta-tions diffrents niveaux (intrants, activits, rsultats et impacts). Les critres du CAD sont appliqus. Les critres non utiliss sont explici-ts ainsi que dautres critres ventuellement introduits. Les questions valuatives sont claire-ment renseignes.Commentaire : une bonne interaction avec le Comit de pilotage a permis dajuster lapproche du champ dvaluation.3. Contexte Note : 3,8/5La politique du donateur et celle du partenaire sont exposes, ainsi que leurs objectifs et strat-gies respectives. Les lments du contexte ins-titutionnel et socio-politique sont prsents, ainsi que les modalits dintervention. Commentaire : les lments de contexte institu-tionnel et sociaux-politique initialement loigns = + + + = + + + = + + +24valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennes4. Mthodologie Note : 4,3/5Le rapport dcrit les mthodes dvaluation appliques, le processus adopt, en dmontrant leur validit et leur crdibilit. Les choix sont jus-explicits. Les diffrentes parties prenantes sont impliques dans lvaluation. Le rapport indique les modalits de choix des protagonistes et de leur participation. Les critres de slection dun Commentaire : le cabinet a su faire voluer sa mthodologie en prenant en compte les caract-ristiques trs particulires de lobjet de lvalua-tion (ABG cible.)5. Sources dinformation Note : 4,0/5Le rapport expose dans le dtail les sources dinformation utilises et assure leur validit par un croisement des donnes et lapplication de mthodes varies. Les personnes interviewes et les documents consults sont cits dans le rap-6. Indpendance Note : 4,0/5-teurs en mentionnant ouvertement les ventuels de manire quilibre (genre et consultants et sans interfrences, en ayant eu accs toutes les informations pertinentes et disponibles.7. thique Note : 4,0/5Lvaluation assure une dmarche attentive au -dentialit. Les membres de lquipe ont t en mesure de se dissocier de certains jugements ou recommandations. Les dsaccords sont prsents.Commentaire : -socier de jugements subjectifs, surmonte par une grande qualit dcoute et un dialogue constructif avec le Comit de pilotage.8. Garantie de la qualit Note : 4,3/5Les diverses parties prenantes ont eu loccasion de se prononcer et de commenter les constats, jugements et recommandations. Le contrle qualit est effectu tout au long de la dmarche dvaluation. Commentaire : le dialogue a t permanent et de bonne qualit entre les consultants et le participation accrue des partenaires extrieurs.9. Pertinence des rsultats de lvaluation Note : 3,8/5Les constatations et les enseignements tirs sont pertinents au regard des objectifs de lva-luation, tout dcalage tant expliqu. Lvalua-tion est conduite dans les limites de temps et de budget prvus au dpart. Commentaire : du retard pris par rapport au calendrier initial.10. Exhaustivit Note : 4,0/5Le rapport dvaluation traite de toutes les ques-tions poses. Il comporte une synthse. Les conclusions, recommandations et enseignements tirs sont exposs de manire logique et claire, et sont tays par des constatations et des ana-lyses, prsentes de manire logique. = + + + = + + + = + + + = + + + = + + + = + + + = + + +25valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennesMEMBRES DU COMIT DE PILOTAGE1. Prsident M. Bruno Cabrillac, Direction des affaires internationales, Banque de France.2. Secrtariat du Comit de pilotage Mme Claude Leroy-Themeze, chef de lunit dvaluation des activits de dveloppement, DG Trsor, MINEFI. M. Frdric Bobay, adjoint au chef de lunit dvaluation des activits de dveloppement, DG Trsor, MINEFI. Mme Christiane Zepter, chef du ple de lvaluation, DGM/SPR/PRG, MAEE. M. Daniel Voizot, ancien chef du ple de lvaluation, DGM/SPR/PRG, MAEE. 3. MinistresMinistre de l'conomie, des Finances et de lIndustrie (MINEFI) M. Rmy Rioux, SD MULTIFIN, DG Trsor. M. Thomas Groh, chef du bureau Afrique subsaharienne et AFD (MULTIFIN 2), M. Abdelmalek Riad, adjoint au chef du bureau Afrique subsaharienne et AFD (MULTIFIN 2), M. Yves Charpentier,Ministre des Affaires trangres et europennes (MAEE) M. Robert Collin, Mme Aline Fortin, Mme Mathilde Bouye, charge de mission APE intgration rgionale au ple de la politique europenne de dveloppement (DGM/ECODEV/DEV). 26valuation des appuis franais lintgration rgionale en Afrique de lOuest : le cas de l'UEMOAMinistre de lconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrieMinistre des Affaires trangres et europennes M. Benot Faivre-Dupaigre, ple scurit alimentaire, S/D scurit alimentaire et dveloppement conomique (DGM/BPM/ALIM). Mme Franoise Cochaud, chef du ple solidarit, mission du rseau (DGM/SPR/RES). M. Romain Louvet, charg de mission auprs du directeur, direction Afrique ocan Indien (DAOI). M. Terence Wills, direction Afrique ocan Indien (DAOI).4. Agence franaise de dveloppement (AFD) Mme Valentine Ferault-Duport, charge de mission institutions rgionales et banques de dveloppement, dpartement Afrique (AFR). M. Jean Ren Cuzon, charg de mission commerce et dveloppement, stratgie et prospective (PSP/APR). M. Bertrand Savoye, charg de mission lunit dvaluation et capitalisation (RCH/EVA).5. Commission de lUEMOA M. Eugne Kpota, directeur de cabinet du prsident de la Commission de lUEMOA. M. Albert Rabiou, coordinateur cellule PER. M. Patrick Salles, conseiller prsident UEMOA. M. Laurent Sillano, DG dveloppement, Commission europenne. M. Wolfram Vetter, Commission europenne. M. Franck Perrault, directeur ORWB, Banque africaine de dveloppement (BAD). M. Nicolas Lcrivain, conseiller rgional de coopration pour lAfrique de lOuest, service de lintgration rgionale, ambassade de France au Burkina Faso. M. Gilles Dufrenot, professeur des universits, universit dAix-Marseille 2, chercheur 27Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European AffairsCONTENTSExecutive Summary ................................................................................................................................................................. 28Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 291. Context, Scope and Objectives of the Study .............................................................................................................. 312. Analysis and Evaluation of the Interventions ............................................................................................................ 333. Main Conclusions and Recommendations .................................................................................................................. 41Consultants work evaluation grid ............................................................................................................................................. 47Steering Committee Members ...................................................................................................................................................... 4928Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European AffairsEXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis summary recalls the objectives of the study and retains the main conclusions and recommendations of this report. It is designed to be read independently of the rest of the report and it includes a concise presentation of the most relevant general and statistical information for understanding of the subject.29Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European AffairsFOREWORDThe Directorate General of the Treasury of the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry and the French Ministry of Foreign and European affairs launched in March 2010 an evaluation on French cooperation support on regional integration in West Africa from 2002 to 2009. The main objective of this study is to evaluate cooperation actions led by France in the West African economic and monetary union (WAEMU) through three mobilized instruments (global budgetary assistance, projects and technical support).This study has been carried out in accordance with the evaluation principles of the Develop-ment Assistance Committee of the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). It lies within the scope of the French international commitments in achieving the Mil-lennium Development Goals (MDG).Created in 1994, WAEMU main mission is to provide macroeconomic stability to its member states, to establish a customs union and, sup-ported by the preexistent monetary union, to strengthen the economic integration by setting up an open and competitive common market. On the one hand, French support to the WAEMU consists of global budgetary assistance, intended from 2006 to 2010 and, on the other hand, of support through the Priority Solidarity Fund and technical assistance provided to regional have been directly negotiated by the WAEMU Commission and have integrated its budget immediately.A steering committee has been formed, com-posed of various institutions and agencies repre-sentatives (French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry, French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, French Development Agency, WAEMU Commission) and external skilled professionals.The evaluation emphasizes the relevance and coherence of French supports to the WAEMU. Budgetary Aid and Priority Solidarity Fund) and technical assistance are in accordance with the strategy and the goals of the WAEMU. The qual-ity of the partnership between France and the WAEMU Commission is considered satisfactory by the consultants. French support allowed the strengthening of the WAEMU Commission sec-toral departments and the acceleration of the acquisition of new skills such as the elaboration of community sectoral policies.However, the report notes that French supports did not achieve the expected leverage, consid-ering they did not contribute, thanks to loan subsidies, to implement the infrastructure pro-jects that would frame the community dynamics, despite the positive outcomes of projects led by the Regional Economic Programme, funded by France. French aid did not apply to some of the WAEMU key issues, such as relations between the Commission and States, the lifting of the obstacles to economic integration, to free move-ment of goods and people, to a common market implementation, or to Union Law enforcement.The recommendations formulated by the con-French strategy for regional integration in terms 30Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European Affairsof goals, means and methods of intervention. -cal supports to lift the obstacles to the economic integration via the future REP 2 (Regional Eco-nomic Programme 2) and to strengthen French aid leverage.To conclude, those results encourage the rein-forcement of institutional partnership between France and the WAEMU, as well as the continu-ation of French supports to its policies and pro-grammes, which would be a coherent action with France involvement, through the Franc Zone, in the regional integration monetary section.Bruno CabrillacChief of the International affairs directorate, Banque de France, President of the Steering Committee31Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European Affairs1. CONTEXT, SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY1.1 ContextFrance intervenes within institutions that it has nurtured in the past and that it currently supports in their development. The creation of WAEMU was contemporaneous to the devalua-tion of the CFA franc in January 1994, and was mainly intended to: ensure the stability and the viability of the new exchange rate through strict macroeconomic discipline, under multilateral surveillance by following convergence indicators based on those of the European Maastricht Treaty that established the Euro; establishing a customs union; completing economic integration by creating an open and competitive common market, based on the free movement and the right of establishment throughout the union for peo-ple, as well as free movement of goods, serv-ices and capital.(adoption of the Stability Pact) and in 2000 (customs union) respectively. The next stage was the creation of a common market. French support, which is the purpose of this evaluation, is part of this third stage. It is addressed using two different approaches: on of common policies and a common legal frame-work, and on the other hand the development of an ambitious programme for the interconnection of economies (Regional Economic Programme or REP).The creation of a common market was coun-tered by a series of factors that cast a shadow over the economic environment, among which the Cte dIvoire crisis, considering the comple-mentarity of the countrys economy with those of the sub-region and its contribution to intra-regional exchanges which exceeded 80% at that time. The growth slump in Europe, which remained by far the zones main partner, also weighed heavily. This context rekindled protec-tionist inclinations, revealed a lack of solidarity in the face of crisis, especially the food crisis of 2008, while governance problems or even a lack of conviction by States hindered the application of Community regulations as well the movement of people and goods.Concerning the Regional Economic Programme (REP), it was not developed optimally. The crea-tion of interconnection infrastructure is severely lagging, and it was not given priority in certain countries such as Cte dIvoire. In addition, the REP focused on road infrastructure, without extending the existing rail infrastructure in order to network both, and it did not anticipate the cur-rent energy crisis, which WAEMU will be facing in the second REP through the new Regional Initiative for Sustainable Energy (IRED). WAEMU countries therefore remain terribly under-equipped in comparison not only to the rest of ECOWAS but also to other low-income countries.32Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European Affairs1.2 Objectives and scope of the evaluationThe overall objective of the study can be expressed at two levels: retrospectively and prospectively.The retrospective level concerned:1) evaluating the support actions carried out by France through the three instruments that it utilised (global budgetary aid [GBA], Priority Solidarity Fund [FSP], technical assistance mechanisms) in terms of choice and results in relation (i) to WAEMU goals and (ii) to the French regional integration policy;2) ensuring correct coordination between French support to WAEMU and French support to member countries and to other regional institu-tions on the one hand, and support from other on the other hand; 3) determining the appropriateness of each of the instruments used in relation (i) to the insti-tutions own capacities, (ii) to the nature of the action carried out;4) studying the synergy and the complementarity between these diverse instruments each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The prospective level concerned:5) identifying the best utilisation of support for the second REP;6) formulating recommendations to optimise the support given to WAEMU in terms of tar-geted actions and the effectiveness of the instruments used;7) formulating approaches to implement a French support strategy for regional integration, that articulates well with support given in countries.The scope of the evaluation was limited in the following way: time-wise, the period covered was 2002 to 2009; subject-wise, it concerned French support to the WAEMU Commission deployed through:- REP: three conventions signed in 2005, 2006 and 2007 for a total amount of 100 million mobilised at the end of 2009;- support from the FSP project no. 2002-45 Support for the regional integration process in West Africa WAEMU chapter, for a total amount of 4 million;- other means used for these same objectives by the French Ministry of Foreign and Euro-pean Affairs, especially in the area of techni-cal assistance; in geographic terms, the evaluation involved a global understanding of the WAEMU zone studies) of the REP projects carried out in two countries (Burkina Faso and Senegal).33Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European Affairs2.1 Reconstruction of the logical frameworkThe reconstruction of the implicit analysis instruments (problem tree, objective tree, logical framework diagram) reveals that a combi-nation of different types of support concerns the points of impact selected in the objective tree, with the expected results, the latter being based 2. ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE INTERVENTIONSTA FSP GBAInput (type of support)General objectives (according to Article 4 of the WAEMU Treaty)Points of impact/results objectives Combination of interventionsInstitutional reinforcement Policy design and implementationTrainingProject studyProject/programme supportInfrastructure developmentAgricultural enhancement investmentReinforce WAEMU CommissionReinforce ECAReinforce legal systemMonitor economic convergenceTown and country planningTransport amenitiesRural developmentEnvironmentImprove health systemImprove higher educ. systemPrivate sector, energy, minesEnhance communicationConsolidate regional institutionsImprove economic & Harmonise Member State legislationHelp to implement WAEMU priority programmesPromote womenGenerate civil society supportConvergence of economic policiesReinforce competitiveness activities: common market, legislation harmonisationCoordination of national sectoral policies: joint actions, common policies+ Reinforce steering, effectiveness and governance of WAEMU Commission34Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European Affairs2.2 Mapping of interventionsBy following the diagram of the logical framework from left to right:The breakdown according to the type of sup-port is based on the Priority Solidarity Fund (FSP) and global budgetary aid (GBA) with a transition to the development phase of infrastructure projects (mainly village water engineering) and agricul-tural implementation. However, given the change of scale between the FSP (less than 4 million) and the GBA (100 million), although the subto-tal of non-project interventions and especially the institutional reinforcement component decreases in relative value between the FSP and the GBA, it actually increases in absolute value.By sectoral point of impact, rural development takes the lions share, followed by road trans-port, support for the private sector, institution reinforcement, the environment, teaching and convergence. The other sectors receive a sprin-kling of funds. Nevertheless this impression of funds being spread too thinly would be dimin-ished by including the totals related to technical assistance.Rural developmentRoad transportPrivate sectorReinforcement of institutionsEnvironmentTeaching & researchEconomic and financial convergenceTradeAir transportHealth/pharmacyTown & country planningEnergyMiningCommunicationInternational transport (maritime component) ICTsMutual benefit funds5,000,000,000 0 10,000,000,000 15,000,000,000 20,000,000,000 25,000,000,000 30,000,000,000 35,000,000,000 FSPGBABreakdown of the points of impact of aid35Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European AffairsAnother interesting fact is the shift in preferential points of impact between the FSP and the GBA.0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Non-FSPFSPGBARural developmentRoad transportPrivate sectorReinforcement of institutionsEnvironmentTeaching & researchEconomic and financial convergenceTradeAir transportHealth/pharmacyTown & country planningEnergyMiningCommunication International transport (maritime component) ICTsRural development10%Road transport4%Private sector7%Reinforcement of institutions22%Environment4%Teaching & research1%Economic and financial convergence20%Health/pharmacy8%Town & country planning7%Energy6%Mining5%Communication4%International maritime transport2%Other24%ComIntemaritiShifts in points of impact between FSP and GBAFSP36Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European Affairs Means of intervention Sectoral policies GBA FSP Non-FSP Overall total Environmental improvement 3,675,598,975 3,675,598,975 Town & country planning 158,513,500 158,513,500 Economic convergence 1,481,821,614 473,442,000 1,955,263,614 Energy 136,784,000 136,784,000 Industry 6,942,073,909 168,991,442 7,111,065,351 Mining 115,397,500 115,397,500 Agricultural policy of the Union (PAU) 31,710,820,735 335,115,079 32,045,935,814 Promotion of the common market 1,141,301,664 1,141,301,664 Institutional reinforcement 4,846,126,675 627,023,970 5 473,150,645 Social & cultural 3,436,456,804 222,219,430 7,200,000 3,665,876,234 Telecommunications & ICTs 12,487,195 12,487,195 Transport 12,349,032,629 291,376,000 360,776,350 13,001,184,979 Overall total 65,595,720,200 2,528,862,921 367,976,350 68,492,559,471 Rural development48%Road transport 19%Private sector11%Reinforcement of institutions 7% Environment6%Teaching & research5%2%Trade2%Health/pharmacy0%ICT0%Other4%al developmentnsport%7% EnT&Economic and financial convergenceHGBABreakdown of the points of impact of aid (data in CFA francs)37Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European AffairsOne can note better selectivity of interventions and a greater concentration on a more limited number of points of impact with GBA. The follow-ing points of impact have been abandoned: town and country planning, energy, mining, communi-cation, air transport and international transport including a maritime component. It should be noted, however, that mining also received uncal-culated technical assistance as well as an FSP entitled SIGAfrique (Network of Geological Sur-veys of Africa) that were not included in the scope of analysis. It should also be noted that the energy sector should receive increased attention and means from France, starting with the GBA of 2010. Concerning the -tives, the FSP focused on 3 themes: Institutional reinforcement -tives: formulating policies, harmonising legislation and implementing projects and programmes)Inexpensive actions were carried out to promote gender equality and to encourage support from civil society.The GBA is in continuity with the FSP. It continues institutional reinforcement and the harmonisation of legislations (by granting them less from a per-centage point of view, but more in absolute value). Above all, it continues to implement sec-toral policies, mainly in the form of projects. Actions to gain support from civil society and the promotion of gender equality are not part of the GBA.Synergy utilisedOne can observe: A synergy between interventions in areas covered by certain technical assistants during this period (macroeconomics, rural development, health). Synergy with other FSPs, i.e. in the area of rural development: Reinforcement of the Regional Improving economic and financial governance13%Consolidating the regional institutions to bring their missions to fruition and for full effectiveness of French support. Reinforcing the rules and means of intervention of the unions organisations27%Contributing to implementing WAEMUs priority programmes, especially in the domain of sectoral policies48%Harmonising Member States legislation2%Supporting the drafting of policies6%Promoting women1%Encouraging support from civil society3% FSP breakdown per objective38Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European AffairsApproach in the EU-Africa Partnership on Cot-ton and Regional Actions for Quality in the Agri-Food Industry in Africa; in the mining area (SIGAfrique project) and in the health area (sup-port for the pharmaceutical policy). A complementarity of FSP interventions with certain REP projects that these interventions helped to prepare.2.3 Evaluation of interventionsThe interventions were evaluated accord-ing to a standard grid, with evaluation ques-terms of reference. In order to respond to each question, judgment criteria were drafted. RelevanceWhat is the validity of the position taken and of the choices made? Does French aid support the regional integration process?The question of the validity of French support and its contribution to economic integration should be evaluated from the point of view of the construction and the consolidation of the institutions concerned, the economic policies implemented and the pro-grammes targeting this integration (according to our terms of reference).As regards the consolidation of the institutions concerned, French aid reinforced several depart-ments within the Commission and the Court of Auditors. It accompanied the Commission in a the UNDP intervention from a strategic point of view as well as the Commissions medium-term budgetary framework.Concerning the economic policies being fol-lowed, French aid has contributed to the process of economic convergence, to the harmonisation -mentation of sectoral policies.As regards programmes aimed at facilitating 5%63%4%9%19%Building an integratedproduction mechanismDeveloping Human resourcesPartnership to mobilise resources and monitoring/evaluation Good governance and consolidationof economic integrationRenovation and modernisation of physical infrastructure5% 9%edmman resources of economic integRe39Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European AffairsFrance (Programme for Support and Development of Regional Centres of Excellence [PACER], Restructuring and Upgrading Programme [PRMN], -tives that participate indirectly in regional integration.Broadly speaking, French support has been aligned along the general objectives of the WAEMU Treaty. This alignment was guaranteed by (i) French involvement in preparing the WAEMU Treaty and (ii) the participative approach that led to the drafting of the priority solidarity fund (FSP). France then assisted with the imple-mentation of the REP determined in 2006.One can note that the following challenges have received little attention: dialogue between the Commission and the States; the movement of people and goods and the application of Com-munity law.One can also note that, where France has inter-vened, the basic issues have not always been tackled head-on, or at least not in a forceful manner: generally because the solutions require much stronger State involvement (business environ-ment, abnormal practices, opening of certain national markets to competition) concerning interconnection infrastructure, because in the implementation of the REP it did not occupy the dominant place that had been intended.-age the interventions through to successful completion, transparently, at a good rhythm of implementation and at a reasonable cost, and did they provide the means and the attention that they deserved?agreements signed with the WAEMU Commis-sion with regards to global budgetary aid and the priority solidarity funds pursuant to WAEMU pro-to guarantee the correct implementation of the REP. The evaluation has concluded that the objectives have been reached. In parallel, France supported the WAEMU Commission in calling into question its institutional and manage-ment mechanism prior to 2007 and prepared its executives for rational adaptation to the new and a results-based budget) through its support for capacity building. The evolution of the situa-tion in relation to the enforcement of the afore-France was right to have made this choice.Coordination, complementarity, coherencyDid support harmonisation framework(s) and between regional and national level operate in a satisfactory manner?Shortcomings were detected at several levels: coordination between the Commission and States; coordination between WAEMU and ECOWAS and other IGOs; inter-donor coordination; coor-dination of French interventions at regional and at national level, and between the French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs and the French Development Agency (AFD). The different issues mentioned have a lot to do with bad project cycle management, duplication of activity, the low completion rate of REP 1 and the absence of a global monitoring system as well as the weak leverage of French support.Coordination between regional and national lev-els has become vital for the successful imple-mentation of Community policies at State level, and it should receive the full attention of the stakeholders in the future.EffectivenessDid the interventions bring the main results expected in the key areas?The interventions were well prepared and led to in terms of output: we can mention the execution of a strategic plan to develop computer systems, the recruitment of experts, training programmes, the formulation and/or the implementation of sectoral policies and programmes in the areas 40Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European Affairsof agriculture, water management and the environment, infrastructure and road transport, health and pharmacy, higher level education and research, the upgrading of companies and air transport. The light that was shed on the situ-ation from a sectoral point of view has led to a of services rendered.Did the interventions call upon best prac-tices, in compliance more particularly with the principles of the Paris Declaration?The quality of the dialogue and of the partner-ship established with WAEMU cannot be denied, according to the criteria of ownership (measured in comparison with the initiatives undertaken and the demonstrated proactivity) and of alignment with the institutions strategies and procedures. harmonisation of their procedures, and results-based management adopted by the Commission has yet to become a reality. Progress has yet to be made in the area of mutual accountability (the partnership is somewhat imbalanced, with more obligations on the Commissions part than on Frances).ImpactDid French support contribute to making regional integration more dynamic and to The amount of French support did not have impact as it was mainly destined for the Regional Economic Programme (REP). The projects funded by France worked well, but they were of a small scale, whereas the major infrastructure projects with an expected major ripple effect are sharply lagging.The interventions strengthened the institutions. France, through the capacity building line of -tion on the strategic aspects and supported management of the REP, and its requirements concerning the implementation of the interven-tions that it funded also helped to strengthen the institution. It placed technical assistants in key areas for its own interventions, and the mission received several accounts of success-ful companionship and good teamwork with the Commissions executives. Special mention must be made of the recruitment of national experts through the FSP and through the capacity build-ing line of GBA, which accelerated the Commis-sions skills acquisition. Most of these experts had their contracts renewed or were given permanent status.SustainabilityHas a risk mitigation strategy been imple-mented, with French support?Sustainability is part of the WAEMU Strategic Plan for the period 2011-2020, which includes a risk mitigation strategy. It was prepared with sup-port from the UNDP and French funding. This strategic plan was presented to the WAEMU Council of Ministers in October 2010. The process of convergence, through the eco-corresponds to the macroeconomic chapter of the risk mitigation strategy. The multilateral for macroeconomic forecasts and sensitivity analysis.However, France has only marginally supported the monitoring system of the Member States trade policy, which instead is the responsibility of other development partners. The acquired advantages of the Customs Union are threat-ened by resorting to restrictive or even unlawful practices, the increase of tariff protection through special taxes collected at the customs frontier, and the not-so-cooperative management of the 2008-2009 food crisis.41Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European AffairsFrench aid did not focus on certain basic problems that should receive full attention: the Customs Union did not establish a com-mon market, because of the persistent obsta-cles to the movement of people and goods; the fragility of certain States and sometimes even the lack of political will have hindered the implementation of Community reforms; the economies are not supported by regional integration dynamics, suffer from a lack of com-petitiveness and remain relatively unattractive exogenous shocks and are growing at a slower rate than the other Sub-Saharan Afri-can economies.Intervention strategyFrance needs a regional integration support strategy. The objectives, means and intervention the circumstances and to the challenges to be met and by learning from past interventions.In addition, the coordination between French interventions at regional and national levels deserves to be strengthened, especially by sup-plementing the partnership framework documents between States with an equivalent document for the two regional communities.Coordination of economic policiesAlthough progress in the area of economic and to increased rigour in the management of public -exposed to exogenous shocks. This progress improvement in regional integration or in trade policies, which deserve to be better monitored. This is why the multilateral monitoring perimeter must include the trade policy as well as the inte-gration process, through means of dedicated indicators.Sectoral policies and the impact of French interventions--ened the Commissions sectoral departments (in the form of knowledge transfers and recruit-ments). Nevertheless, the impact is sometimes disappointing. For example, the agricultural and rural development policy, which mobilised the most considerable means, did not lead to an -lowing demographic growth, or an increase in yields, even though some States, such as Burkina Faso, are currently launching their green revolution.Tremendous work on harmonising policies and regulations, supported by France, led more to texts awareness-raising actions at State level (the excep-Community policies deserve an independent evaluation. These policies must attack the basic issues, which are often cross-cutting by nature: 3. MAIN CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS42Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European Affairsthe priority being to remove the different restraints to growth in the WAEMU zone (facilitating business [including legal certainty], movement of people and of goods, competitiveness, factor costs, attractiveness, decompartmentalisation of mar-kets and opening them up to competition, catch-ing up in the area of infrastructure and human capital).The continuing obstructions to movement of people and of goods (while the economic and food crisis increased protectionist inclinations) still go against the regionalisation of markets and of value chains. Cross-cutting approaches must -cies which continue to focus on standardisation and quality (including from a health aspect), areas in which France has already intervened, but also on the governance of sectors, their opening up to competition and the dismantling of public and private monopolies. This being so, the sectors must remain privileged points of impact for reforms and the place of their materialisation.The priority is to build political consensus on these issues, which are, in addition, linked to the smooth development of the infrastructure pro-gramme. Regional infrastructure involves a high level of trust between countries, not least because of the implied dependence on neighbors for key resources such as water and energy.1 The regional economic programme (REP)The result of the REP is positive for projects had the desired leverage, and the major infra-structure projects that should have made up the greater portion of the REP and boosted the economies by the recovery brought about are barely starting. Conclusions will be drawn from the evaluation half way through REP 1 (2006-2010) in order to remedy the problems diag-nosed and to design and then implement REP 2 on a solid foundation2, by fully utilising the skills available in project cycle management at WADB level, and by relying more on the latter to improve -cially coming from other development banks.French aid must contribute either directly or indi-rectly to making up for the delay in the area of interconnection infrastructure, which is one of the major issues for the sub-region, especially in the perspective of regional integration.Quality of partnershipThe quality of the partnership between France and WAEMU through this support is good, with respect for the best practices that are part of the Paris Declaration principles. Neverthe-less, this partnership is disadvantaged by its bilateral nature, and by maintaining a project-based approach rather than a programme-based one even with budgetary support (which remains are part of an overall programme) rather than for regional policies or for the Commissions strategy. The intensity of policy dialogue is suffering from this.The coordination between interventions by (TFP) needs to be reinforced. The quality of the partnership between France and the WAEMU Commission would be even better and more consistent with the best practices stemming from the application of the Paris Declara-tion principles if it acted through a multilateral framework, around a common platform mutually determined by the Commission and its part-ners, in line with the institutions strategy, with the pooling of direct and untargeted resources procedures, not only for France, but also for the other partners, coordination of their support by the Commission and mutual accountability. The Commission is ready for such a change with the adoption of a strategic plan, economic and 1- World Bank/AFD: Africas Infrastructure: A Time for Transformation, June 2010 (page 143).capacities of States; endorsing projects already subjected to a technical and economic feasibility study; updating the REP each the Regional Agricultural Development Fund (FRDA), the Energy Development Fund (FDE) but also the donors regional programmes around the REP.43Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European Affairsgovernance, the adoption of result-based man-agement and shortly a medium term budgetary framework (MTBF).3Policy-based dialogue requires a monitoring and evaluation system. In liaison with the previous recommendation, France should support the creation of a set of regional integration indica-tors, extended to aspects other than economic even support the implementation of the corre-sponding mechanism. This work would usefully inspire the other African regional communities.Coordination and cooperation with ecowas, intergovernmental organisations (IGOs) and statesFor successful sectoral policies and for the suc-cess of the REP, it is necessary to: Play the regional card: ensure good coordi-nation between REP 2 and the Community Development Programme (CDP) that ECOWAS is currently drafting, create regional markets foremost for energy) in order to proportion investments in these markets and, on this basis, to ensure their coherency and to opti-mise their economic return.Concerning sectoral policies, the issue lies as much in coordination with ECOWAS as in coordination with regional technical insti-tutions, whether or not they are linked to ECOWAS (i.e. ICDCS, Afristat, basin agencies, etc.). France, which is sometimes present at organisation level and more often than not at technical level in numerous regional institu-informally to regional coordination, especially through the network of technical assistants. Involve States more for good coordination between regional and national levels, in order to dismantle public and private monopolies, improve the external governance of sectors, and establish an inclusive monitoring/evalua-tion system.Interventions should be prolonged in States, through political dialogue and technical sup-port. Progress in applying Community rules should no longer be monitored occasionally but regularly. Support for Community reform at State level should become a major theme, and the main point of coordination between actions at regional and national levels.Methods and continuation of interventionsContinuation of institutional reinforcementFrench support has contributed to reinforcing institutions. It has accelerated the acquisition of new skills. It has boosted the drafting and implementation of sectoral policies, an area that the Commissions other partners did not cover. It helps the Commission in its new vocation of project management, especially concerning -French technical assistants, present in several regional organisations, should also be present in the WAEMU Commission which plays a pivotal role. However, with the strengthening of the Commission, their permanent presence can undoubtedly be light, strategic and detached from activities of substitution, and completed by occasional advisory missions, especially as the Commission is familiar with and used to working with consultants. Technical assistants should be either placed with the institution exercising lead--tution playing the role of implementing agency.through global budgetary aid. In this framework, and in addition to the secondment of an AFD executive, Special Adviser to the Commissions President on the REP, support to strengthen the management unit of the REP and the national monitoring units should be envisaged. The creation of a new project based on the Priority 3- By analogy with the three rules on eligibility for general budgetary support from the European Commission: the existence of an reinforcement plan.44Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European AffairsSolidarity Fund should take into account the lessons learned from the implementation of the 2002-45 fund: focusing on a smaller list of pri-orities, simpler procedures, limiting the number of phases, agreements and payments, check-ing halfway through the entire project and after-wards by the Court of Auditors and no longer on a convention-by-convention basis.and programmes Even though its Commission became consider-ably stronger over the period, both institutionally the Regional Economic Programme are consid-part from its own resources, and until now its purpose has not been to run into debt.45Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European Affairs2IE ...............................Water and Environment International InstituteABG ..........................Global Budgetary Aid (French public budget / French Development Agency)ABV ...........................Volta Basin AuthorityACAME ......................African association of drugs group purchasing organizationsAFD ............................French Development Agency (France)AFRICATIP ...............African association of public work and employment agenciesAGETIPE ..................Public works and employment agency in SenegalAPE ............................Economic Partnership Agreement (European Commission) (EPA)AT ...............................Technical AssistanceBAD ...........................African Development BankBCEAO .....................Central Bank of West African StatesBID .............................Inter-african Development Bank (institution of the CEDEAO)BOAD .........................West African Development BankBRVM ........................Regional Securities ExchangeCAMES .....................African and Malagasy Council for Higher EducationCEDEAO ...................Economic community of West African states (ECOWAS)CESAG .....................African Institute of management studies (Dakar)CREPMF ....................CSLP ..........................Poverty reduction strategy paper (PRSP)C/UEMOA ................WAEMU commissionCEFEB ......................CILSS ........................standing inter-state committee for drought control in the SahelCIMA ..........................Inter-African Conference on Insurance MarketsCNPE .........................National Committees on Economic PolicyCORAF .....................West and Central African Council for Agricultural Research and DevelopmentCRCA ........................Regional Council of Insurance SupervisionDCP .............................Partnership framework document DATC .........................Directorate of Community Territory Planning, Transport and TourismDDE ........................... Company, Telecommunication and Energy Development Department (WAEMU Commission)ACRONYMS46Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European AffairsDDRE .............................. Development, Natural Resources and Environment Department (WAEMU Commission)DDSC ..........................Social and Cultural Development DepartmentDMRC ........................Directorate of Regional Market, Trade, Competition and CooperationDPE .............................Economic Policies and Fiscal Department, WAEMU CommissionDSAF ..........................EISMV ........................Interstate School of Veterinary Science and Medicine FAIR ...........................Solidarity fund for regional integrationFAO .............................Food and Agriculture organization of the United NationsFEER .........................Water and rural equipment fund FRDA .........................Agricultural development regional fundFDE .............................Energy development fundFSP .............................Priority solidarity fund (French Ministry of foreign and European affairs)IMOA/WAMI .............West African monetary instituteIRED ...........................Regional initiative for sustainable energy MAEE .........................French Ministry of foreign and European affairs MEIE ..........................MOD ............................Project managment supportOIG ..............................International governmental organization (IGO)OMS ...........................World Health Organization WHOPACER .......................Support for national and regional centers of excellencePACITR .....................Community Actions Programme for Infrastructure and Road TransportPAPED ......................EPADP Economic partnership agreements development programmePAU .............................Union Agricultural Policy PCD .............................Community development programmePER .............................Regional economic programme (REP)PIB .............................Gross domestic product (GDP)PIR .............................Regional indicative programme (RIP)PNUD ..........................United Nation development programme (UNDP)PRMN ........................Restructuring and Upgrading of Industries ProgrammePTF ............................ROPPA ......................Network of Farmers' and Agricultural Producers' Organisations of West AfricaSCAC ........................Cooperation and cultural action department in French embassiesSPIDS ........................Trade union of industries and minesUEMOA .....................West African economic and monetary union (WAEMU)UPS .............................Strategic programming unit (SPU)ZMOA/WAMZ ...........West African monetary Zone (WAMZ)47Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European AffairsCONSULTANTS WORK EVALUATION GRID44- Quality standards document created by the task group from the DAC development evaluation network (OECD development assistance committee).Estimating the consultants work allows the appreciation of the performance for each criterion. Thus, each advisory/steering commit-tee member is able to appreciate in a more per-sonal and fair way, the quality of the given work. A synthesis of the marks will be done, providing an effective indicator of quality, and therefore of relevance of the results. A case of disagreement among the committee members will be written down in the comments. The collegial notation allows to highlight the focal points, that is to say the potential dividing points within the evaluated action. In doing so, this grid provides an objec-tive approach of the evaluation quality. General result: 4,0/5objectives of the evaluation Mark: 4.0/5The report shows why and for whom the evalua-tion is undertaken, and why at that given moment. The purpose of the evaluation conforms to learn-what the evaluation is intended to achieve.2. Field of the evaluation Mark: 4.0/5addressed, funding, duration, types of interven-tion, geographical coverage, target groups...). The evaluation report analyzes the intervention levels (inputs, activities, outcomes and impacts). The DAC criteria are applied. The unused criteria are pointed out, whereas other criteria may be introduced. The evaluative questions are clearly indicated.Comments: Good interaction with the Steering Committee enables to adjust the approach of the 3. Context Mark: 3.8/5Donor and partner respective policies are explained, as well as their respective objectives and strategies. The aspects of the social, politi-cal and institutional context are presented with the intervention methods.Comments: The elements of the institutional, social and political context, that appeared far from = + + + = + + + = + + +48Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European Affairs4. Methodology Mark: 4.3/5The report describes the applied methods and the adopted process by demonstrating their limitations or defects are explained. Various stakeholders are involved in the evaluation. The report indicates the methods for selection of the of their participation. Selection criteria of a sam-Comments: The consultant was able to adapt its methodology by taking into account the very particular characteristics of the evaluation object (GBS targeted.)5. Information sources Mark: 4.0/5The report describes in detail the sources of information and ensures their validity by cross-ing data and the application of various methods. The interviewed people and the consulted docu-ments are cited in the report, respecting the 6. Independence Mark: 4.0/5-The evaluation team, established in a balanced way (gender and local consultants), is composed able to work freely and without interference, by having access to all relevant and available pieces of information.7. Ethics Mark: 4.0/5The evaluation was conducted with integrity, assuring the participants well-being, respecting members were able to disassociate themselves from certain opinions or recommendations. Dis-agreements are stated.Comments: -tive judgments was overcome thanks to a listen-ing ability and a constructive dialogue with the committee.8. Guarantee of the quality Mark: 4.3/5The various stakeholders had the opportunity to and recommendations. Quality control has been conducted all along the evaluation process.Comments: The dialogue between the consult-ants and the committee has been permanent greater involvement of external partners.9. Relevance of the evaluation results Mark: 3.8/5the objectives of the evaluation. Any discrepancy has been explained. The evaluation has been conducted within the initially planned time and budget.Comments: work was running behind on the initial schedule Mark: 4.0/5The evaluation report addresses all the ques-tions and includes a synthesis. The conclusions, recommendations and lessons learned are clearly analysis. = + + + = + + + = + + + = + + + = + + + = + + + = + + +49Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European AffairsSTEERING COMMITTEE MEMBERS1. President M. Bruno Cabrillac, International affairs directorate, Banque de France.2. Committee secretariat Mrs. Claude Leroy-Themeze, Chief of the evaluation and development activities unit, Directorate General of the Treasury, Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry. M. Frdric Bobay, Assistant chief of the evaluation and development activities unit, Directorate General of the Treasury, Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry Industry. Mrs. Christiane Zepter, Chief of the evaluation department, DGM/SPR/PRG, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. M. Daniel Voizot, former Chief of the evaluation department, DGM/SPR/PRG, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. 3. Ministries Ministry of Economy, Industry and Employment M. Rmy Rioux, Chief of the Multilateral Financial Affairs and Development Division, MULTIFIN, Directorate General of the Treasury. M. Thomas Groh, Chief of the Sub-Saharan and FDA (French development agency) Division, MULTIFIN 2, Multilateral Financial Affairs and Development Division, Directorate General of the Treasury. M. Abdelmalek Riad, Assistant Chief of the Sub-Saharan and FDA (French development agency) Division, MULTIFIN 2, Multilateral Financial Affairs and Development Division, MULTIFIN, Directorate General of the Treasury. M. Yves Charpentier, Financial Advisor for Africa, Directorate General of the Treasury. 50Evaluation study on French support for regional integration in West Africa: the case of WAEMUMinistry of the Economy, Industry and EmploymentMinistry of Foreign and European AffairsMinistry of Foreign and European Affairs M. Robert Collin, Chief of the Financial Governance Unit (DGM/ECODEV/MGD). Mrs. Aline Fortin, Representative, Financial Governance Unit (DGM/ECODEV/MGD). Mrs. Mathilde Bouye, Representative, Regional Integration, European Development Policy Unit (DGM/ECODEV/DEV). M. Benot Faivre-Dupaigre, Food Security and Economic Developement (DGM/BOM/ALIM). Mrs. Franoise Cochaud, Chief of the Solidarity Unit (DGM/SPR/RES). M. Romain Louvet, Representative, Directorate of Africa and Indian Ocean (DAIO). M. Terence Wills, Directorate of Africa and Indian Ocean (DAIO).4. French Development Agency (FDA) Mrs. Valentine Ferault-Duport, Representative, Regional Institutions and Development, Africa Department (AFR). M. Jean Ren Cuzon, Representative, Trade and Development, Strategy and Prospective (PSP/APR). M. Bertrand Savoye, Representative, Evaluation and Capitalisation (RCH/EVA).5. Committee for WAEMU M. Eugne Kpota, Director of the WAEMU Commission Presidents cabinet. M. Albert Rabiou, Regional Economic Programme Coordinator. M. Patrick Salles, Advisor of the WAEMU President. M. Laurent Sillano,General of Development, European Commission. M. Wolfram Vetter,General of Development, European Commission. M. Franck Perrault, President ORWB, African Developement Bank. M. Nicolas Lcrivain, Regional Cooperation Advisor for West Africa, Regional Integration Department, French Embassy in Burkina Faso. M. Gilles Dufrenot, Professor, Aix Marseille 2, International Finance Development , CEPII associate.MINISTRE DE LCONOMIE, DES FINANCES ET DE LINDUSTRIEDIRECTION GNRALE DU TRSORUnit valuation des activits de dveloppementTldoc 649 - 139, rue de Bercy75572 Paris CEDEX 12developpement-eval@dgtresor.gouv.frMai 2012MINISTRE DES AFFAIRES TRANGRES ET EUROPENNESDIRECTION GNRALE DE LA MONDIALISATION, DU DVELOPPEMENT ET DES PARTENARIATSService des Programmes et du Rseau/Ple valuation27, rue de la ConventionCS 9153375732 Paris CEDEX 15www.diplomatie.gouv.frConception graphique : Direction gnrale du Trsor/Secrtariat gnral/Ple Communication (en coordination avec la Direction de la communication et de la presse au MAEE).Crdits photographiques : C2G Conseil/Fabrice Alcandre.DIRECTION GNRALEDE LA MONDIALISATION, DU DVELOPPEMENT ET DES PARTENARIATS

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