Direction des tudes et de la scolarit
Langue principale de lenseignement English
Titre de l'enseignement
The Dreams of planning Bringing utopia to order in modern, European cities Semestre denseignement Semestre d'automne X Semestre de printemps Autres langues de lenseignement (facultatif) E-cours
oui X non Type d'enseignement (obligatoire) X Cours magistral avec confrences de mthode
Cours magistral seul Sminaire Enseignement lectif Atelier
Descriptif du cours At the beginning of the industrialization period, at the dawn of modernity, most cities in Europe suddenly increased in population and jobs. The modern city is home of social utopias and political reforms, as well as of technical projects and plans. This class explores how the notions of planning and the design of cities emerged during the transition of the late 19th century. It will first examine the process of urbanization and urban change in European cities. Then, it will articulate some concepts relevant to urban planning in different national contexts. The conceptual framework focuses on the antagonism and cooperation among civil servants, technical experts, and decision- makers. The class will take short conceptual excursions in London, Paris, Vienna; visits to Manchester, Berlin, Rome, Barcelona, Prague. Finally, the class will point elsewhere, in a comparative exercise with the cities in expansion in the late 20th century. The class will explore how new urban artifacts (buildings, neighborhoods) were conceived; and who is responsible for assembling and deploying these spatial interventions among the growing number of local policy tools. At the end of this course, students will: - have acquired a basic knowledge of European urbanization since the nineteenth century; - understand how cities faced development issues and implemented planning decisions in
specific moments ;
- understand the development of a reflexive practice intended to control future developments through spatial models and planning procedures;
- understand the intellectual and political friction between (local) decision makers, social reformers, and technical practitioners.
Mode of validation Students will be assessed by the Confrences de mthode (67%); and a final written exam (2 topics to choose), duration 3 hours (33%). Rules for cell phones and laptops: Cell phones should be turned off during class. Laptops are not allowed for note-taking in this class. Language: English Lectures principales demandes A. Lees and L. H. Lees, eds., Cities and the Making of Modern Europe, 17501914 (2007). P. Hall (2014). Cities of tomorrow: An intellectual history of urban planning and design since 1880. John Wiley & Sons. D. Harvey, Paris Capital of Modernity (Routledge, 2006). L. Benevolo (1967). The origins of modern town planning. Mit Press. Optional readings: Sutcliffe, A. (Ed.). (1980). The rise of modern urban planning, 1800-1914 (Vol. 1). London: Mansell. Choay, Franoise, The Modern City: Planning in the Nineteenth Century, New York, 1970 M. Berman, All That is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity (New York: Penguin Books, 1982). Minkenberg, M. (Ed.). (2014). Power and Architecture: The Construction of Capitals and the Politics of Space (Vol. 12). Berghahn Books. Carl Schorske, Fin de Sicle Vienna: Politics and Culture (Vintage Books, 1981). Background 1. Excavating the future of the European city 2. Urbanisation and Cities of modern Europe 3. The state against the cities 4. Utopias vs. technical dreams Materializing utopia 5. Inventing a new city 6. A modern building sector 7. Public space and collective memory 8. Metropolitan transport Sour dreams 9. Cholera, earthquake and Epidemics 10. Landscaping the city 11. Housing the poor 12. The return of dreams?
Confrences de mthode 1. An analysis of a non-central European neighbourhood built between 1850 and
1930 (of about 20,000 inhabitants); the aim is to analyse the historical process of urbanisation and the corresponding change in spatial forms, and to reconstruct the planned or non-planned interventions that motivated it. A model will be provided, based on technical maps or on Google map. The analysis has to point out what has changed, and what hasnt, and which changes do not appear on the map. A short descriptive section (2,500 words) will cover one of the topics dealt with during classes (paper: 50%).
2. A comparative analysis of three different papers or books on the same topic. The topic should be related either to the second or third part of the class, and namely: either an example of advanced spatial solution adopted in some cities to answer to political pressures; or to an (re)emerging urban issue which has not found a convincing solution. These three choices must be validated by the lecturer
3. The oral discussion of a case study, based upon a written short paper: a portrait of a city and of its major transformation during the age of the industrial revolution and after.
1 Excavating the future in the European city A preliminary definition of the modern city. Political reformers and utopian thinkers. Political reactions to the modernisation process: conflicts and political reforms. Design, politics and social reforms: a place for dreaming the future. The difference between dreams and utopia, and viceversa. The suspended relation between technical forecast and political power. A comparative approach to studying urban society during the industrialisation process. 2 Urbanisation and Cities of modern Europe A short introduction to the cities of Europe. The urbanisation process since the industrial revolution. The spatial determinants of the industrialisation process. Geography matters. How to address the urbanisation of the continent. 3 The state against the cities Nation states and development imperatives. Local elites and the nation building process. The awkward positions of cities. Political rights, revolution and urban conflicts during the 19th century. The slowly increasing role of the technical experts: engineers, architects and planners. 4 Utopias vs. technical dreams The links between politics and technics. The divide between local and central decision makers. Ancient utopias and new technical imagination. The establishment of new disciplines. The emerging fields of a new technical knowledge. 5 Inventing a new city Introduction to the political meaning of spatial forms. A new spatial order, and the ideals of political equality. Preserving historical space; demolishing old infrastructures. Old infrastructure and modern design. Conceptualizing new spaces: the expansion of the historic city. The birth of the plan: the organization of land and the regulation of development. The invention of the modern urban form. 6 A modern building sector More on the spatial order of the new industrial societies. Urban forms and political ideas: links and contradictions. The social factor: the overcrowding of the historic city. The issue of reconceiving urban density. Politics and land: boulevards and grids. The economic relevance of real estate markets.
7 Public space and collective memory The emerging public sphere. New centres of urban sociability: caf, theatres the public space in the bourgeois society. The ideal and nature of publicness and the public in the urban order. Tradition and modernity. Space for capitals: celebrating power, empires, and triumphs. Collective memory and the use of the past. 8 Metropolitan transport Urban mobility and circulation in the 19th century. The invention of public transport. How the railways ensured cities' complete transformation. The first railways in continental Europe (1928-30) were operated on horse-drawn carriages. The biggest impact of railways: the revolution of working life. The birth of commuting. National railways and local commuter lines. The need of organising commuting. A new social geography of the cities.
9 Cholera, earthquakes and epidemic The 19th century was overconfident on the human capacity of controlling natural phenomena. Sciences progress and the increased control of the built environment. Tragedies that shook this confidence and brought to consistent reformulations. The birth of modern hygiene; and the science of healthy urban environments.
10 Housing the poor The evocative tale of the divided city. The great divide between poverty and related social policies. The early attempts to build a welfare state. Inventing social housing, inventing new ways of living. Housing and social services.
11 Landscaping the city Controversial feelings: urban love and urban fears. The flight of the urban middle class to the suburbs: the fear of the dangerous crowd. The love for nature, the invention of recreational parks. Beautifying the city or leaving it? The garden city as an ideal solution: a new link between social reforms and urban form. The open way to 20th centurys new towns.
12 The return of dreams? Does the neoliberal era put all dreams to an end? As Jameson put it, it is easier to imagine the end of the world than the end of capitalism. Technological fears and risks hamper all future related activities. The need arises to reposition both politics and science. Also, most urban issues are reformulated at the crossroad of new ethical and technological concerns.
1 Excavating the future of the European city - Ward, S. (2013). A Cultural History of Modern Urban Planning. G. Young, & D.
Stevenson (Eds.). Aldershot: Ashgate. - Picon, A. (2007). French engineers and social thought, 1820th centuries: An archeology
of technocratic ideals. History and technology, 23(3), 197-208. - Peter Hall, Cities of Imagination : Alternative Visions of the Good City, 18801987, in
Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design Since 1880, 2014, Wiley-Blackwell.
- Cabet, Etienne Cabet. "Icara." Cabet, Voyage en Icarie (Paris, 1842.) Passage pp. 39-55 translated by editors and reprinted in Frank E. Manuel and Fritzie P. Manuel (eds.), French Utopias: An Anthology of Ideal Societies (New York: Schocken Books, 1971):332-338.
Novel: - Verne, J., (2005). The Begum's Millions. Wesleyan University Press (1879). Others: - Andrew Lees and Lynn Hollen Lees, eds., The Urbanization of European Society in the
Nineteenth Century (1976). - Duby Georges et al. , Histoire de la France urbaine, 4 : la ville de l'ge industriel, Seuil,
1983. - Olsen, Donald, The City as a Work of Art: London, Paris, Vienna (New Haven: Yale
University Press, 1986).
2 Urbanisation and Cities of modern Europe - Andrew Lees and Lynn Hollen Lees, Europe: 18002000, The Oxford Handbook of
Cities in World History, Edited by Peter Clark - Penelope J. Corfield, Cities in Time, The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History,
Edited by Peter Clark Others: - Pierre Sorlin, French Society, 1840-1914: The Big Cities (1969), in Lees and Lees,
eds., The Urbanization of European Society in the Nineteenth Century (1976). - Wolfgang Kllmann, The Process of Urbanization in Germany at the Height of the
Industrialization Period (1976), in Lees and Lees, eds., The Urbanization of European Society in the Nineteenth Century (1976).
- Hohenberg, Paul M., and, Hollen Lees, Lynn, The Making of Urban Europe, 10001994 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995).
3 The state against the cities - Saunier, P. (2002) Taking up the bet on connections: a municipal contribution.
Contemporary European History 11.4, 50727. - Patrizia Dogliani (2002). European Municipalism in the First Half of the Twentieth
Century: the Socialist Network. Contemporary European History, 11, pp 573-596 - Baumeister, Reinhard, "Town Extensions: Their Links With Technical And Economic
Concerns And With Building Regulations." Excerpt from Baumeister, Stadterweiterungen in Technischer, Baupolizeilicher und Wirtschaftlicher Beziehung (Berlin: Ernest & Korn, 1876), as translated by Frank Koester in his Modern City Planning and Maintenance (New York: McBride, Nast and Company, 1914): 45-49.
Others: - Ward, Stephen V. A Pioneer Global Intelligence Corps? The Internationalisation of
Planning Practice, 1890-1939. Town Planning Review 76, no. 2 (2005): 119141.
- Ward, Stephen V. Transnational Planners in a Postcolonial World. In Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning, edited by Patsy Healey and Robert Upton, 4772. New York: Routledge Press, 2010.
Novel: - Th. Mann, Buddenbrooks : the decline of a family. 4 Utopias vs. technical dreams - Barbara Miller Lane, Architecture and Politics in Germany 1918-1945 (2nd edition,
1985), chapters 1-3, 5, - John Mullin, "City Planning in Frankfurt, Germany 1925-1932: A Study in Practical
Utopianism", Journal of Urban History 4 (1977): 3-28. - John Nelson Tarn , Housing reform and the emergence of town planning in Britain
before 1914, in Anthony Sutcliffe, ed., The Rise of Modern Urban Planning 1800-1914 (Vol. 1). London: Mansell.
Others: - Aureli, P. V. (2011). City as Political Form: Four Archetypes of Urban Transformation.
Architectural Design, 81(1), 32-37. 5 Barcelona: inventing the new city - Soria y Puig, a. (1995), Ildefonso Cerds general theory of urbanization, Town
Planning Review, 66, 1539. - Martn-Ramos, A. (2012), The Cerd effect on city modernization, Town Planning
Review, 83, 695716. Others: - Aibar, E., & Bijker, W. E. (1997). Constructing a city: The Cerd plan for the extension of
Barcelona. Science, technology & human values, 22(1), 3-30. - Michael Neuman, Ildefons Cerd and the future of spatial Planning, The network
urbanism of a city planning pioneer, TPR, 82 (2) 2011 Novel: - Eduardo Mendoza, 1990, The City of Marvels, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt 6 Paris: the construction of the modern building sector - Sutcliffe, Anthony. "Grand Design." In The Autumn of Central Paris. London, UK:
Edward Arnold, 1970, pp. 11-42. - Hnard, Eugne. "The Cities of the Future." In Royal Institute of British Architects, Town
Planning Conference London, 10-15 October 1910, Transactions (London: The Royal Institute of British Architects, 1911):345-367.
Others: - M. Berman, Baudelaire, modernism in the streets, in All That is Solid Melts Into Air: The
Experience of Modernity (New York: Penguin Books, 1982). - David Harvey, Paris Capital of Modernity (Routledge, 2006). - Joachim Schlr, Nights in the Big City: Paris, Berlin, London, 1840-1930 (1998). - Louis Chevalier, Laboring Classes and Dangerous Classes (Princeton, 1973 ) - Anthony Sutcliffe, Paris: An Architectural History (Yale, 1996) Novel: - Zola, . (2005). The kill. OUP Oxford.
7 Vienna: Public space and collective memory
- Eve Blau, Red Vienna, Architecture, and Spatial Politics between the World Wars, Ch. 7 in Minkenberg, M. (Ed.). (2014). Power and Architecture: The Construction of Capitals and the Politics of Space (Vol. 12). Berghahn Books.
Others: Carl Schorske, Fin de Sicle Vienna: Politics and Culture (Vintage Books, 1981). 8 London: metropolitan transport - Peter Hall, The Utilitarian City: London, 1825-1900, in Cities in Civilization (2001). - Henry Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor (orig. 1851 and 1861) (selections).
9 Cholera, earthquakes and epidemic - P.J. Smith, Planning as environmental improvement : slum clearance in Victorian
Edinburgh, Ch. 6: in Anthony Sutcliffe, ed., The Rise of Modern Urban Planning - Daunton, M. (2011). Londons Great Stink and Victorian Urban Planning. BBC
History. - Parrinello, G. (2015). Fault Lines: Earthquakes and Urbanism in Modern Italy (Vol. 6).
Berghahn Books (cchhpp 1 & 2, in particular : pp. 21-43; pp. 74-77) Others: - Richard J. Evans, Death in Hamburg: Society and Politics in the Cholera Years, 1830-
1910 (1990). 10 Landscaping the city - Franziska Bollerey and Kristiana Hartmann, A patriarchal utopia : the garden city and
housing reform in Germany at the turn of the century, in Anthony Sutcliffe, ed., The Rise of Modern Urban Planning .
- Michael Wagenaar, Conquest of the Center or Flight to the Suburbs? Divergent Metropolitan Strategies in Europe, 1850-1914, Journal of Urban History 19 (Nov. 1992): 60-83.
- Buls, Charles. "City Aesthetics." Municipal Affairs 3 (December 1899):732-741.
11 Housing the poor - Peter Hall, The City of Dreadful Night, Reactions to the Nineteenth-Century Slum City:
London, Paris, Berlin, New York, 18801900, Ch. 2 in , in Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design Since 1880, 2014, Wiley-Blackwell.
- Howard, Ebenezer. "Garden Cities of To-morrow." Garden Cities of To- Morrow (London, 1902. Reprinted, edited with a Preface by F. J. Osborn and an Introductory Essay by Lewis Mumford. (London: Faber&Faber, ):50-57, 138-147.
Others: - Friedrich Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 (London: Allen
and Unwin, 1944), 23-74
12 The return of dreams? - R. Fishman, Ch. 2 in Scott Campbell & Susan S. Fainstein, ed., Readings in Planning
Theory - Picon, Antoine. 2013. Learning from utopia: contemporary architecture and the quest for
political and social relevance. Journal of Architectural Education 67, no.1: 17-23.
- John Friedmann, The good city: in defense of utopian thinking, in John Friedmann, Insurgencies: Essays in Planning Theory. New York: Routledge, 2011, 144-161.
Langue principale de lenseignementTitre de l'enseignementSemestre denseignementAutres langues de lenseignementE-coursDescriptif du coursMode of validationRules for cell phones and laptops:Lectures principales demandes