The Museum of Paestum

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LE MUSE DE PAESTUM par P. C. SESTIERI 14. MUSEO DI PAESTUM, Paestum. Faade. 14. Faade. * Le muse fut inaugur le 27 novembre 1952 par M. Segni, ministre de l'instruction publique, en prisence de M. Alberti, vice-prsident du Snat, et d'autres persomalitis, mais malheureusement en l'absence de celui qui aurait d tre la place d'hon- neur, l'auteur du projet, l'architecte de Vita prima- turment disparu. 'IDBE de construire un muse Paestum fut mise la suite des intressantes L dcouvertes faites l'embouchure du Sele, sur l'emplacement clu sanctuaire de Hra Argiva dont parlent Strabon et Pline. La Direction gnrale des antiquits et des beaux-arts voulut que les merveilleuses mtopes archaques mises au jour au cours des fouilles fussent protges par un difice et exposes au public dans un cadre digne d'elles, qui permettrait de les observer et de les tudier dans les meilleures conditions. On choisit cet effet l'important centre archologique de Paestum, situ proximit des fouilles, qui prsente l'avantage d'tre desservi par une route natio- nale reliant l'Italie centrale la Calabre et par la voie ferre Naples-Reggio, dont le trac longe les murs de la cit antique. L'architecte Idarcello de Vita dut modifier ses plans plusieurs reprises pour tenir compte des dcouvertes que chaque campagne de fouilles venait multiplier, enrichissant ainsi le patrimoine dj considrable, qui avait t provisoirement abrit dans un baraquement, au bord du SeXe. Les plans dfmitifs ne furent mis au point qu'en 1940, lorsqu'on eut retrouvi la frise du tbesawos archaque presque intacte (3 3 mtopes sur 36). La guerre ralentit les travaux. Pendant toute la dure des hostilits, les mtopes restrent dans leur baraquement sur les bords du Sele, o elles ne souffrirent heureusement aucun dommage. La surintendance des antiquits Salerne reprit le projet ds que la situation fut rede- venue normale; elle put acqurir le terrain o devait s'lever le muse et obtint du Ministre des travaux publics qu'il en finanst la construction. Celle-ci fut confie au"service du gnie civil de Salerne*. Le muse a t amnag selon les principes les plus modernes et les plus rationnels, tant en ce qui concerne la prsentation que l'clairage. Le btiment est trs simple et assez peu lev (I z mtres) ; il s'harmonise ainsi avec les temples doriques situs proximit. La seule dcoration est un motif ondes qui encadre la porte, rappelant l'une des frises du temple dit de Crs. La fasade (j'g. I#), les piliers intrieurs et les murs de la salle centrale sont revtus de travertin de Tivoli; on ne pouvait en effet utiliser le travertin local, qui ne se prte pas tre sci en dalles. A l'intrieur, les carrelages sont en pierre de Trani, sauf la salle centrale, qui est pavtSe en marbre de Carrare; les marches des escaliers sont revtues de marbre vert. La disposition intrieure, non moins simple ('g. I), 16), ne visait mettre en valeur que le matriel provenant des fouilles du Sele - le seul qui, l'poque o le projet fut labor, mritt d'tre expos, puisqu'on n'avait jamais encore entrepris de fouilles systmatiques Paestum, et que les plus belles pices provenant de ce site taient envoyes Naples. L'intrieur forme un vaste rectangle. I1 comprend un grand hall d'entre, deux spacieuses salles latrales et une salle centrale (jtg. 17) entoure sur trois cts d'une galerie supporte par des piliers (j'ig. IS). On accde la galerie par deux grands escaliers qui partent de chaque ct du hall. De cette galerie, qui est protge par une balustrade de cuivre on peut contempler, sans lever la tte, la frise du thesatiros archaque, qui court sur les murs de la salle centrale 3 m 70 de hauteur (jg. 19). Ce fut dans le plan d'installation du muste la disposi- tion la plus fonctionnelle et la plus hardie : cette salle a exactement les dimensions du fbesawos et peu prs sa hauteur, et les mtopes sont groupes non en vue d'une reconstitution, mais pour le maintien des squences des diErents mythes qu'elles illustrent, de fason offrir, vues d'en bas, l'aspect qu'elles avaient dans l'antiquit. La profondeur et l'ampleur du hall d'entre permettent de dgager, en mnageant un espace suffisant, l'unit centrale et vitent ainsi de donner au visiteur l'impres- sion d'un difice construit l'intrieur d'un autre. L'clairage lui aussi a t soigneusement tudi. La lumire directe aurait aplati le relief des mtopes qui sont sculptes dans le grs, pierre dont l'opacit adoucit les ombres et les fond avec le relief. Sur la fasade s'ouvrent, outre la porte, deux grandes fentres de 9 mtres munies de vitres thermolux filtrantes et de stores lames rglables; 19 fentres places sous la galerie diffusent la lumire vers le bas et vers le haut; la galerie elle-mme, pour viter l'clairage direct, ne comporte aucune La ventilation ncessaire en t, des fouilles de l'embouchure du Sele (jg. 2 o). Mais partir de I 944 la situation se transforma entirement. A la suite de vastes campagnes de fouilles entreprises par la surintendance des antiquits Salerne les collections archologiques de Paestum s'enrichirent considrablement. Les premires dcouvertes furent celles de la ncropole nolithique de Gaudo, de la ncropole d'Arenosola de l'ge de fer et des tombes grecques et lucaniennes de la rgion d'Arcionil. Mais les fouilles qui devaient donner toute son importance Paestum en mettant jour des objets remarquables tant par leur nombre2 que par leur valeur artistique et documentaire furent celles de 1952. Elles ont marqu le dbut de l'exploration systmatique de laville, dont elles ont permis de dgager le sanctuaire mridional. Celui-ci com- prenait au moins 13 temples, dont les PIANO INFERIORE !PIANO AJPERIORE deux plus grands sont connus actuellement sous les noms de Basilique et de temple de Neptune. En fait, tous ces temples sont ddis la mme divinit, qui tait aussi vnre dans le sanctuaire du Sele : Hra Argiva, desse de la fcondit. C'est ce que dmontrent de manire irrfutable le matriel votif et les documents pigraphiques dcouverts. Outre les dpts votifs, qui ont livr quantit de statuettes de terre cuite, de vases, de pitces de monnaie et de bijoux, on a m i s au jour des fragments 16. bfusEo galerie supkrieure. 16. Plan of the museum, upper gallery. PhESTUhf, Paestum. Plan du musCe, 91 architecturaux, des sculptures en marbre, de petits bronzes, de grandes sculptures en terre cuite, des ivoires et des pierres incises. Tout ce matriel joint celui qui provient du temple de Crs - identifi comme tant un Athenaion - donne une ide assez cxacte et complte de lart et des principaux cultes de lancienne Poseidonia. On a rsolu le problme de lamnsgement intrieur en affectant le rez-de-chausse ( lexception de la salle centrale) au matriel provenant du sanctuaire du Sele, r7. MUSEO DI PAESTUM, Paestum. Hall dentre et salle centrale. r7. Entrance hall and central room. 18. MUSEO DI PAESTUM, Paestum. Les galeries inf- rieure et suprieure. 18. Lower and upper galleries. ltage au matriel provenant des ncropoles et des dpts votifs de Paestum, la salle centrale aux objets les plus reprsentatifs de lart de Poseidonia. REZ-DE-CHAUSSE DU MUSE. Les deux salles latrales contiennent des frag- ments architecturaux et des fragments de sculptures en grs provenant de 1Hraion des bords du Sele; celle de droite, 6 mtopes de la frise du temple principal, datant des dix dernires annes du VI^ sicle av. J.-C. : la premire reprsentant un archer agenouill, les cinq autres, une danse de jeunes filles dfilant deux par deux (fig. 22). la dernire, une danseuse seule se retournants. Au mur, des fragments de la corniche et de la cimaise, avec des gargouilles tte de lion provenant du temple. Dans la salle de gauche, deux vitrines contiennent des fragments de sculpture archaque en grs, provenant de divers points du sanctuaire. On remarque notamment un petit torse de guerrier assez finement excut. Au mur, deux fragments orns de rosaces de la corniche suprieure du mur du thesawos archaque et, plus haut, quelques mtopes provenant ddifices non identifis. Deux dentre elles sont particulire- ment importantes. La premire, qui remonte probablement 5 3 0 environ av. J.-C., a t retaille une poque postrieure pour servir la construction dun autre difice; elle reprsente deux personnages en marche; le torse de lun deux a t retrouv, il est mal dgrossi; les deux personnages devaient sabriter sous un bouclier rapport en mtal. La seconde reprsente un guerrier arm et casqu qui slance lassaut vers la gauche, en tournant le buste et en tenant son bouclier en oblique. Ce mouvement et les dtails du casque, orn de boucles en relief, permettent de dater cette mtope de 490 environ av. J.-C. (jg. 23). Le hall dentre abrite trois chapiteaux doriques archaques : lun, en pierre calcaire, provient du temple principal; les deux autres, en grs, appartenaient respectivement au thesauros et un difice inconnu. Deux chapiteaux de grs provenant du vestibule du thesmros sont placs de part et dautre de la porte dentre de la salle centrale; leur forme est caractristique de Paestum et ils sont orns de reliefs dune extrme finesse : rosaces, palmettes, fleurs de lotus et ondes4. Comme nous lavons dit, le mur de la salle centrale porte la frise du thesauros, qui remonte la premire moiti du VI^ sicle av. J.-C. : certaines des rntopes ont t retrouves incompltes; on a combl les lacunes par des essais de reconstitution au trait sur des plaques de ciment qui feront place aux originaux dans le cas o les fouilles les mettraient au jour ($A. 24). Ces mtopes forment plusieurs ensembles, consacrts chacun un mythe diffrent. Certaines sont inacheves - avec les silhouettes des personnages peine esquisses en artes vives dans la pierre tendre. Dans d'autres, on distingue dj des dtails et le model des muscles. D'autres enfin sont entirement acheves. Du ct ouest, trois mtopes reprsentent les satyres attaquant Hra dfendue par Hralils ; une autre, isole, reprsente un personnage masculin, probablement Ulysse, mont sur une tortue de mer; deux autres illustrent la poursuite des Leucip- pides par les Dioscures ($8. 21). Sur le ct nord figurent l'enlvement de Latone; le meurtre de Tityos par Artmis et Apollon; Oreste poursuivi par la furie de sa mre; Zeus, le therm polemozr ; Hlne et Andromaque pleurant la mort d'Hector; Hcube au lit de mort de son fils; le meurtre de Patrocle; Achille guettant Trolus; un centaure (trs endommag) ; enfin Hrakls ramenant le sanglier d'Erymanthe dans A. Le dieu devait tre assis sur un escabeau de bois ou un trne sans appui (car les ornements peints sur le devant du vttement se continuent dans le dos). I1 est v&tu d'un chiton collant jaune clair et d'un himation rouge qui enveloppe troitement le corps, drapant le thorax en oblique et dont les pans qui retombent de part et d'autre sont orns sur les ccits de dents de loup alternativement rouges et noires et, en bas, de mkandres; la polychromie est en grande partie conserve, mEme sur le visage qui est rose; la barbe, en pointe, est lgrement en relief, les moustaches simplement peintes et stylises, et les cheveux noirs retombent dans le dos en lourdes tresses efiltes aux extrmitts, et sur la poitrine en de grosses perles ovales. Sur la ttte, une couronne de feuilles de bronze, dont il subsiste quelques frag- ments. I1 tenait probablement dans ses mains tendues un sceptre et une patre. Par l'attitude et par le drap du vCtement cette sculpture rappelle beau- coup le Zeus en tuf du fronton de l'Acropole le palais d'Eurysthe. Du ct est, les six mtopes illustrent- le combat d'Hrakls contre les Centaures sur le mont Pholoe : les centaures blesss sont figurs avec une grande intensit dramatique, notamment celui qui se tient la tte et celui qui s'effondre dans un enchevtrement de bras et de pattes. Les travaux du hros se poursuivent sur le ct nord : lutte contre Ante, pisode des Cercopes, enlvement de Djanire, lutte pour le trpied de Delphes et combat avec le lion de Neme. Viennent ensuite deux scitnes du mythe de Plias et deux scnes de l'Orestie : Oreste tuant Qgisthe; Clytemnestre, retenue par sa nourrice (et non par Talthybios comme dans la tradition dramatique), menaGant son fils avec une hache double tranchant (jg. 26). Cett? admirable srie de scnes mythiques - d'une importance comparable celles du coffret de Cypslos tant par l'intrt documentaire que par la valeur artis- tique - constitue probablement l'ensemble de sculptures archaques le plus complet et le plus homogne que nous poss&ons. A l'intrieur de la salle centrale sont exposes quelques pices d'un grand intrt, toutes trouves Paestum. II y reste assez de place pour que la salle puisse servir des runions culturelles ou des confrences. Adosse au mur du fond se trouve une grande statue en terre cuite reprsentant un dieu assis ($g. 27) qui est trs vrai- semblablement Zeus5; avec celle d'Hra, elle servait sans doute au culte dans l'un d'Athnes, reprsentant le * e t o ~ d'H;rakks ionique, mais lgrement de sel attique, cc>mme le montre ia forme de ia bouche, assez sem- blable i celle du c a ~ a l ~ ~ Ralitpii17. Le vitement collant, qui ne forme que quelques plis parallkles et plats, et la de l'attitude permettent de dater cette statue du troisiime quart du VI^ sicle av. J.-C. B. C'est un petit personnage masculin debout, vctu comme Zeus d'une tunique et d'un himation oblique, et chausse de sandales pointues. I1 lui manque la ttte, les bras et une grmde partie du cote gauche. Les draperies polychromes (tunique jaune, himation rouge) et collantes et la forme des cham- sures attestent aussi une influence ionique. Par le style et technique, cette Statue beaucoup la PT&- cdente; elle date probablement de la mkme poque. c. L~ tete, sculpture grecque dulse siicle av. J.-C., ne s'adapte pas pufaitement au corps, uvre d'ar- tistes lucaniens du I I I ~ ou du I I ~ sicle av. J.-C. Le visage, faunesque mais non sans noblesse, contraste avec le corps disgracieux et trop long, Sur des iambes trop courtes. l'Olympe. L'artiste a certainement subi l'influence des temples archaques du sanctuaire6 [A]. Sa dcouverte prsente une trs grande importance. Elle constitue en effet le plus parfait exemple que nous possdions de l'art des sculpteurs de Poseidonia, dont d'autres uvres plus ou moins endommages ont t dtcouvertes, presque toutes en 19j.z. L'une de ces uvres est expose dans la mme salle [BI. L'ceuvre place en face de cette dernire est entirement diffrente pxr la conception et par le style. C'est une statue de bronze (le seul bronze de grandes dimensions dcouvert jusqu'ici Paestum) qui reprsente le satyre Marsyas8 [CI. En haut des murs sont placs des fragments de cimaise et de larmier en terre cuite orns de dessins et de peintures polychroms, qui proviennent d'un petit temple archaque dont on voit les fondations sur le ct sud du temple dit de Crs. On y trouve galement deux fragments de la cimaise de l'difice connu sous le nom de Basilique, avec de fausses gargouilles ; et, au-dessus de la porte, des fragments mieux conservs du temple de Crs. Ces derniers sont en grs, orns de gargouilles tte de lion puissamment modeles, ainsi que de palmettes et de fleurs de lotus en relief, d'une excution trs dlicate. De chaque ct de la porte se trouvent deux D. A l'origine, c'est--dire la fin du VIIR sicle av. J.-C., Hkra est reprsente assise sur un trne, coiffe du polo$ tenant sur le bras gauche un enfant et dans la main droite une grenade, qui manque actuellement. Seule la tkte ddalique est travaillke; le corps schmatis forme une sorte de large surface incurve, soutenue en arrikre par deux supports en terre cuite qui figurent les pieds du trne. Dans le style archaque plus rcent, la desse est reprsentke trSnant majestueusement, tenant dans la main droite la patre et dans la main gauche un panier de gre- nades, ces dernires tant, comme le lys, un symbole de fcondit10. Dans les statuettes plus grandes le dossier du trne s'orne parfois de deux sphinx ails. Dans certains cas, la desse est reprsente en buste, tenant la patre d'une main et portant un petit Eros sur l'paule gauchell. Dans d'autres, elle est assise, nue ou v h e , les bras colls au corps et les mains posCes sur les genoux. La statuette d'Hra Eilithyia (jg. r8), l'une des plus belles figurines en terre chapiteaux ioniques, galement en grs, appartenant au pronaos du mme temple, qui avait 8 colonnes ioniques. Ce sont les plus anciens chapiteaux ioniques existants d'Italie; ils ressemblent par la forme ceux d'Asie mineureg. Les I 6 vitrines daces dans la galerie infrieure contiennent des obiets. Dour la cuite que l'on onn naisse et certainement la PIUS belle que l'on ait dcouverte dans le sanctuaire, est du la tkte et le dos, laisse apparatre la nudit parfaite et pu- dique de la desse accroupie dans la posture vimi- sicle av. ,.-c. L,himation, qui " I .'I plupart en terre ciite, trouvs dans les dpts votifs et les bodhroi du sanctuaire des ~ i , " , e , , " , ~ ~ ~ ~ ? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ' p ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ b ~ bords du Sele, ou dans les ncropoles du voisinage. Les objets sont disposs selon avec l'idal et le got du peuple grec12. Deux l'ordre topographique, sauf dans la premire et la dernire vitrine, o ils sont classs par type : dans la premire, des statuettes qui montrent l'volution du type d'Hra travers les sicles [DI. La vitrine suivante renferme des fragments de vases corin- dub" ProPoloi, poss sur les paules de la desse, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , f ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~~~t~~~~~ svmbole et de f&ondit&. - tliens et proto-corinthiens - dont certains orns de figures - trouvs dans le sanctuaire ou sous la cella du temple principal. Avec les vitrines suivantes commence l'exposition du matriel votif trouv dans les dpts votifs. La plus grande partie 93 ry. MUSEO DI PAEST~M, Paestum. Prsentation des mtopes du Thesatiros del Sele, au fate du mur extk- rieur de la salle centide. ry. Arrangement of the metupes of the Thmros del Sclc at the top of the central room's outer wall. E. Ces figurines sont stylises et seuls la tte et les bras sont travaills de fason plu& primitive. Les porteuses d'ofrandes toutes vktues du chiton et de l'himation. se diffrencient par le drap des v&te- ments et par la coiffure, souvent aussi comp1iqui.e et recherche que celle des dames du S V I T I ~ sihcle. Parmi ces pices se trouvent quelques ttes de statuettes reprisentant Athna et de nombreux bustes de femmes portant un lys sur la tte: c'est ce que l'on appelle des femmes-fleurs, la fois ex- voto symbolisant la fcondit et f/~~~nziutrr-ia (brle- parfums). F. Sur les deux plus petites (qui formaient les cistis troits du sarcophage) sont figurs un guerrier cheval, coiff d'un casque italique portant deux longues plumes de part et d'autre du laphos, et quelques grenades dont l'une entoure d'une cou- ronne. Sur les dalles formant les grands cts, on voit une course de chars, deus lutteurs encourags par un joueur de flte double, et un combat de gladiateurs. 94 en est forme de statuettes en terre cuite reprsentant des porteuses d'offrandes et datant de la priode hellnistique ; certaines sont archaques, notamment le gracieux choros, qui reprsente des danseuses se tenant par la main pour une ronde que rythme une joueuse de flte [E]. A part les vases corinthiens, on n'a trouv dans le sanctuaire que peu de poteries, pour la plupart de Lucanie OLT de Paestum, et aussi quelques vases attiques figures noires ou rouges. Parmi ces derniers citons un lcythe reprsentant une Nike aile et un fragment montrant un citha- rde barbu, la tte renverse en arrire ; ces deux pices sont traites dans le style svre, etla seconde est attribueBrygos. Parmi les innombrables objets de bronze figurent des clous, de petits crochets, des hamesons, des fibules, un porte-miroir orn de volutes et de palmettes, une poigne de porte, galement orne de palmettes13 et quelques arme:sl4. La seule figurine de bronze est une intressante statuette de Camille, du ~ e * sicle av. J.-C. En ce qui concerne les mtaux prcieux, outre quelques pices d'argent de la Grande Grce et de la Rpublique ro- maine, on trouve une boucle d'oreille et quelques feuilles d'or, ainsi que trois barrettes d'argent provenant de diadmcs o devaient tre insres des feuilles d'or, maintenant perdues. Le matriel provenant des bothroi est surtout constitu par des vases lucaniens et romains sans grande valeur. Dans la dernire vitrine sont groups des vases de l'ge du bronze provenant de la ncropole de Sainte-Ccile, des fragments de cramique arabe et byzantine, et le matriel trouv dans une tombe de femme de l'poque lucanienne (fin du I V ~ sicle av. J.-C.)I5. Ce mobilier funraire comprend, en outre, I I petites fibules de bronze et 4 vases, dont un gamikos / e h sur lequel est reprsente une femme nue, agenouille, qui se regarde dans un miroir en prsence d'un Eros ail. G A L E R I E S U P ~ R I E U R E (entirement consacre Paestum). Les 3 5 vitrines contiennent pour la plupart du matriel mis jour en 19j2 . Sur les murs, de part et d'autre des escaliers d'accs, se trouvent 4 dalles de travertin stuqu et peint provenant d'un sarcophage lucanien du I V ~ sicle av. J.-C. [FI. Les quatre premires vitrines sont consacres la prhistoire de Paestum et de ses environs. Les objets qu'elles contiennent montrent que cette rgion et le site mme de la ville taient habits ds les temps les plus reculs. On voit, dans la premire, des silex palolithiques et nolithiques, des pierres polies nolithiques, des lames de silex nolithiques, des haches en bronze ailettes et de petits vases votifs de l'ge du bronze - le tout dcouvert proximit de la basilique. On y trouve galement la splendide collection de poignards en silex provenant de la ncropole nolithique de Gaudo et deux poignards de cuivre de mme origine. Deux grandes vitrines sont consacres la cramique de cette mme ncropole. Elles contiennent une collection complte de rcipients16, depuis la cruche ronde et ses varits jusqu' l'mkos et la salire. Ces vases, trs beaux et parfaitement conservs, rappellent les cramiques de la deuxime couche (nolithique) de Troie, dont ils sont contemporains (2400-1900 av. J.-C.). L'ge du fer (du I X ~ au mresicle) reprsent par la ncropole d'Arenosola (rive droite du Sl), est reprsent dans une vitrine contenant des vases d'argile et notamment des amphores biconiques deux anses verticales et ouverture vase, de petites cuelles profondes grande anse verticale, des pointes de lance en fer, de fibules et des armilles de bronze, en& quelques boucles d'oreilles en fil d'argent avec pendants en ambre. Les ncropoles de l'ge classique ont fourni des vases grecs (vases attiques figures noires, ioniques et corinthiens), provenant d'kcioni, et des vases lucaniens, de Spinazzo et de Porta Aurea. Dans une tombe de cette dernire localit on a trouv des vases, dont l'un de l'cole d'Asteas, et une belle cuirasse italique en bronze en parfait tat. Parmi les vases grecs, le plus remarquable est une superbe hydrie de Fikellural', qui unit la raret de la forme la perfection de l'excution. Le matriel votif, trs abondant, offre souvent une grande valeur artistique et constitue une documentation de premire main sur les principaux cultes de la ville, dont les temples taient jusqu'ici conventionnellement et arbitrairement attribus diverses divinits. Le sanctuaire mridional, y compris les deux grands temples, la Basilique et le temple de Neptune, tait consacr Hra; le sanctuaire septentrional Athna et quelques autres divinits. Quatorze vitrines contiennent un choix de matriel provenant du temple de Neptune1*. Bien que la prsentation ait t faite selon des critres topographiques, c'est--dire par groupes selon les lieux de trou- vaille, la composition m&me des dpts votifs des temples, l'abondance et la varit de leur contenu ont rendu possible une classification typologique et chronologique des statuettes. Une vitrine contient des figurines de type archaque reprsentant toutes la desse Hra [GI. Comme l'Hraion du Sele, celui de Poseidonia tait trks riche en statuettes de por- teuses dyo&andes, de femmes-fleurs et de symboles de la fcondit tels que grenades, Ips et colombes. L'Hra Eilithyia ( V ~ ~ W G G ) y figure en plusieurs exemplaires, dont malheureusement aucun n'est intact. Dans deux cas, la desse est reprsente en Junon-Cyble, tenant le tambourin de la main gauche, assise sur un paon la queue largement dploye en ventail. Les statuettes d'Aphrodite et d'Athna datent de la priode hellnistique. Outre les statuettes, on trouve parmi les pices votives de terre cuite des maquettes de temples et d'autels, des brle-parfums et des patres. Deux de ces dernires, fort belles, sont dcores de palmettes et de fleurs de lotus en relief, videmment copies sur des originaux en bronze du ve sicle av. J.-C. Les innombrables vases trouvs dans les dp6ts votifs des temples reprsentent toutes les priodes depuis l'poque corinthienne jusqu' l'poque romaine. Parmi les vases attiques on remarque une superbe amphore de o m 61, du style svre, dont le peintre pourrait tre Nikoxenos. On y voit, d'un ct, les Amazones s'apprtant au combat, et de l'autre Hrakls capturant Cerbre. Mais la plupart des vases proviennent de l'Italie mridionale, surtout de Paestum, et leur nombre ne permet pas de douter de l'existence de la fabrique locale. Beaucoup sont peints la manire d'Asteas - et un ganzikos debes reprsentant le jugement de Pris peut tre attribu avec certitude au matre lui- mmez0. Les coupes nuptiales abondent et sont videmment des ex-voto offerts par les jeunes poux. Parmi les bronzes figure une statuette de Camille qui remonte la fin du I I ~ sicle av. J.-C. Le jeune Romain tient une patre dans la main droite. Des pointes de flches, des projectiles en forme de gland voquent l'aspect guerrier de la desse. Le dpt votif de la Basilique a une composition peu prs identique. La preuve que ce temple tait lui aussi consacr la desse aux bras blancs nous est fournie par les statuettes et par divers fragments de vases portant l'inscription HPA. I1 en 20. MUSEO DI PAESTLJM, Paestum. Plans des fouilles de la rgion. 20. Map of the excavations in the Paestum region. [I-II Temples mineurs / Smaller temples 12, 13 Temples majeurs (dnommts Basilique et temple de Neptune) / Main temples (so-called Basilica and Temple of Neptune). 14 DbpOts votifs du temple dit de Neptune / Deposits from the so-called Temple of Neptune. 15-17 Autels des temples majeurs / Altars of the main temples. 18 Autres autels / Other altars. 19 Portique / Portico. zo Edifice grec / Greek building. 21-23 Autels / Altars. 2-1 Temenos.] G. Deux ttes ddaliques sont traites dans un style identique celui de la statuette plus ancienne du sanctuaire du Sele. La plus intressante (il en est d'autres, moins compltes) reprsente une femme nue coiffe dupalas; c'est videmment une figuration de l'Astart phnicienne, desse mre et desse de la fkcondit, identifite avec Hera par syncrtisme. Le double caracthe de la desse, qui tantt se prsente comme la paisible gardienne de l'amour conjugal et des naissances, tantfit apparat arme (boplosmia) l9, se manifeste dans deus statuettes archaques identiques par la partie suprieure. Elles ont le mme visage, la m&me coiEure surmonte du polos et portent le m@me pplos apoptygma. Mais le corps de l'une se termine en une pointe qui devait s'insbrer dans un support cylindrique; le bras droit est repli et lev et la main fermte devait tenir une lance dans l'attitude de la proniacbos; l'avant-bras gauche, tendu mais bris, soutenait certainement le bouclier. L'autre statuette, en revanche, reprsente la desse trnant paisiblement. Divers fragments font apparatre une stylisation de la partie infrieure dans ce deuxime type de statuette : le trne et les vtements forment une sorte de pont sur lequel repose le tronc du personnage. La vitrine suivante montre l'volution du type de la dtesse de la p- riode archaque l'ge classique; certaines Sta- tuettes - notamment de la deusime priode - P- 96 -+ 95 sont identiques celles du sanctuaire du Sele; d'autres n'ont t trouves qu'i Paestum. L'une des plus anciennes, dont la partie infrieure revit la forme d'un pont, conserve une dlicate polychromie rouge et noire sur fond blanc; d'autres figurines de forme tlance et d'exkution trs dlicate tiennent dans la main droite un lys qu'elles pressent contre leur poitrine. La plus grande, qui date de la fin de la priode archaque, mesure prs de 50 cm. Elle reprsente la desse assise sur un trne, v&tue d'un pplos largement drap, la tte couverte du polos, la main droite tenant une grenade. La main gauche, qui manque, devait tenir la patre. Cette statuette, unique en son genre, est d'une qualit exceptionnelle. I. Ncropole de Gaudo, Reiidicotzfi delPAccade- m a di Napoli, vol. XXIII, 1947-1948, p. I sqq. Rien n'a encore tt publit sur les fouilles d'Areno- sola. Fouilles d'hcioni, hTofi+e degli Scaui, Rome, 1951. P. 135. 2. Le nombre des objets trouvs s'lve prs d'un million. 3. Les sculptures du temple principal et celles des divers thuawoi non identifis ont dj t repro- duites dans l'ouvrage de P. Zancani-hlontuoro et U. Zanotti-Bianco, Heraiotz alla Foce del Sele, Rome, 1951, Libreria dello Stato. 4. Not. dqli Scald, Rome, 1937, p. 271, fig. 44-47. 5 . Trouve en morceaux, le 5 aot 1952, en partie l'exttrieur et en partie l'intrieur du troi- sime loculus du dpBt votif du temple dit de Nep- tune. Les jambes sont presque entirement restau- res ; il manque les pieds, le bras droit et la partie suprieure du visage. Hauteur. o m 9". 6. De trs nombreuses statuettes votives de PHeraion du Sele et de celui de Poseidonia reprt- sentent le couple divin Zeus-Htra. 7. E. Langlotz, W. H. S. Schuchhardt, Archaiscbe Plastik al4 der Akropolis. Berlin, Bruckmann, 1938, planches 5 et 6. 8. A. Marzuello. ((La statua di Marsyas e la Colonia Latina di Paestum )), Afti della S.I.P.S.. Societa Italiana per il Progresso delle Scienze, vol. V, octobre 1932. 9. Le premier, dtcouvert en 1947, est publi dans NufiXie degli Sravi, 1948, p. 154, fig. I, dans Bolleffim d'Arte, Rome, 1948, p. 335, fig. I et 2, et dans F. Krauss, Miff. d. Derifsch Arch. h i . , Munich, 1949, nu I. Le deuxime a t dcouvert en 1952. Un chapiteau semblable ceux de Paestum a t rtcemment trouv Marseille par le professeur F. Benoit, qui m'a aimablement fait part de sa dcou- verte. IO. Ce type, qui est le plus rpandu, est communt- ment appel6 : L a Pestana. I1 tait dj connu et le Muse national de Naples en possde plusieurs exemplaires. l bir : A. Levi, Le terrecotte jgwafe del Museo Naarchaque de 3 cm et deus statuettes d'un art exquis qui reprsentent Athna luttant contre Enceladezz. On y remarque aussi des ptes de verre phniciennes, des corna- lines graves, des fragments de couronnes d'or et une grande boucle d'oreille en filigrane du mme mtal. La plus belle pice de cette collection, et l'un des joyaux du muse, est une tte de femme en marbre grec des les, uvre italiote de 480 av. J.-C. environz4. Elle provient probablement d'une mtope sculpte dans une autre matire, le grs sans doute, o elle tait insre selon la technique utilise 1'Hraion de Slinonte. Cette vitrine contient enfin les belles pices de monnaie trouves au cours des fouilles; on y remarque de nombreuses incuses de Poseidonia et d'autres villes de la Grande Grce. De nombreux graphiques donnent aux visiteurs une ide prcise de la provenance et de la signification des objets exposs. Au rez-de-chausse se trouvent un plan et une reconstitution du grand temple du Sele, un plan gnral de la zone des fouilles et des coupes de bothoi ; la galerie suprieure, un plan de la ncropole de Gaudo, ceux de deus tombes montrant l'emplacement des squelettes et du mobilier fun- raire au moment de la dcouverte, enfin une carte dtaille de la rgion sacre de Paestum, et de la zone des fouilles avec le plan de tous les difices, y compris ceux qui ont t dcouverts en 1 9 j z - montrant l'emplacement des trsors. A l'intrieur des vitrines sont disposes de nombreuses lgendes et notices explicatives. Les objets de petites dimensions qui prsentent un grand intrt, tels que les bijoux, les fili- granes, etc., sont placs sur des supports spciaux de plexiglas munis de verres grossissants. La surintendance des antiquits Salerne a dj rassembl diverses publications concernant les antiquits et les monuments de Paestum, en vue de constituer, au muse mme, une petite bibliothque spcialise qui pourra tre mise la disposition des chercheurs. (Tradztt de l'taleiz.) 17. ArchoJqya Clmica, Rome, 1950, vol. It, no I, p. I sqq. I 8. Ce dCpc',t votif comprenait d'innombr.i'>les objets, rCpartis a Vinterieur et h l'exttrieur de qua:rc gi-ands loculi sur le ci& nord du temple. I1 a It dicouvert entre le 1 5 juillet et le 1 3 septembre 1952. 19. C L la Juno Lanuvina. 20. Une Ctude de ce vase doit paratre prochainc- ment dans ArihJogia CJusin. 21. Dcouvert en 1907 et publit par hf. Guar- ducci dans Notiyie de& Jcati? 1948, p. 185. 22. On ne connaissait auparavant que trois petits bronzes provenant de ' Paestum : un personnige servant de support qui se trouve B Berlin (U. Jant- zen, ICErksfttetz, pl. 26, no 1o7-109), l'ex-voto de, Phillo qui est i Berlin (E. Langlotz, Fr2griccbiscl~c BiJdhazirrschJeti, p. 104, nu 18 ; A. Neugehauer, Aiitiko Brotiqstafmttetz, Berlin, I 934, fig. 34), enfin une porteuse d'offrandes qui est au hlus6e profane de la Bibliothiquc du Vatican (S. Reinach, Rt$ertoire de ICI sfafiiairc., t. V, vol. I , p. zjj,fig. 3, 4 et 5). 23. Ce groupe sera prochainement publi dans BoJltttino d 'Arte. 2.1. TrouvCe au nord du temple dit de Neptune, le 20 aot 19jz. THE MUSEUM OF PAESTUM T was the original discoveries successfully made at Foce del Sele, in the Hera I Argiva sanctuary mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, that suggested the idea of building a museum at Paestum. The Directorate-General of Antiquities and Fine Arts desired that the wonderful archaic metopes brought to light by the excavators should enjoy proper protection in a building where they could at the same time be exhibited to the public, in a way that would enable them to be seen and studied to the best advantage. The choice for the site of the museum fell on Paestum, which was not far from the area of the excavations. Paestum was itself a centre of consider- able archaeological importance, situated on a national highway connecting Central Italy with Calabria; it was therefore easy of access for tourists, who could also, if they wished, reach it by the Naples-Reggio railway line, which actually passes ex- tremely close to the walls of the ancient city. The architect, Marcello De Vita, was compelled to alter his plan several times; for new discoveries which came to light as the result of each fresh excavation were constantly adding to the already note- worthy collection, which was temporarily accommodated in a shed beside the River Sele. The plan on which the museum's construction was in fact based could only be given final form in I 940 when, with 3 3 metopes out of 3 6, the frieze of the ancient thesauros had been almost completely recovered. The war interfered with the carry- ing out of the plan, and during the entire period of hostilities the metopes remained preserved intact in the shed near the Sele. After the war, the Soprintendenza alle Antichit di Salerno reverted to the project, initiated and completed the negotia- tions for acquiring the land on which the museum was to be erected, and arranged for the Ministry of Public Works to finance the building operations, which were placed under the control of the Civil Engineering Department of Salerno." The museum was conceived on rational and highly modern lines, as regards both the display and the lighting of the exhibits. The building itself is very simple in its outer aspect and of moderate height (12 metres), so that it does not clash with the nearby Doric temples. The only form of decoration-that around the entrance by P. C. SESTIERI 21. hfus~o DI P ~ ~ s r u h r , Paestum. Vitrincs mondes tout glace, contenant des statuettes d'Hra. 21. Frameless glass showcases, with figures of Hera. * The museum was eventually opened on 27 Novemher 1952 by the hiinister of Education, On. Segni, in the presence of the Vice-president of the Senate, On. Alberti, and other high officials. The architect De Viea however, who had evolved the project and who should havc been the main figure at the ceremony, was missing-for he had died, though still a very young man, on thc eve of the final accomplishment. 97 door-is a continuing wave motif, somewhat similar to one on a frieze of the so-called Temple of Ceres. For the outer fasade (jg. 14), the supporting columns of the interior, and the central room, a lining of Tivoli travertine has been used, since the local stone could not be sawn into sections and was therefore unsuitable. Inside the building, Trani stone was employed for all the flooring-except in the central hall, where the floor is in Carrara marble, and the horizontal and perpendicular facings of the stairway in green marble. The plan of the interior is likewise a very simple one ($8.. IJ, 16); it is well designed to provide an unobtrusive back- ground for the Sele material which, when the project was drawn up, was the only material worth exhibiting, since there had never been systematic excavation at Paestum and the best of what had been found there had already been removed to Naples. The interior takes the form of a great rectangle, on the first of whose smaller sides is the great porch leading to a spacious entrance-hall and two large side-rooms; in the centre is a third room ( jg. 17), which is surrounded, on three sides, by rows of pillars flanking two galleries, one above the other ('g. IS). The upper gallery is reached by two sets of stairs on the entrance-hall side; it has a protective brass railing all round it, and from it can be seen, at eye-level, the frieze of the archaic thesauros, which has been placed around the top of the central room's outer wall, 12 ft. up (jg. 1.9). This is the boldest and simultaneously the most functional feature of the museum's display scheme: the proportions of this room have been designed to fit the exact dimensions and approximately the original height of the fhesa~~ros, and the metopes have been arranged, not with a view to reconstruction, but with the object of preserving the sequences of the myths they illustrate, so as to be viewed, from below, in the same way in which they were viewed in ancient rimes. To this end the entrance-hall has been conceived on a very ample scale, so as to place the central unit with sufficient space around it to dispel the impression of there being one building within another. Most detailed attention has been paid to the lighting, steps having been taken to eliminate all direct light, which would have deformed the relief of the metopes; the latter are sculptured in sandstone, a very opaque medium on which the shadows are, so to speak, softened and blended with the relief. At the museum 22. MUSEO DI PAEsTuh. Paestum. hitope de la frise de PHeraion : danse de jeunes filles, VI^ sii-cle av. J.-C. 22. Metope from the frieze of the Heraion: young girls dancing (vIth century B.C.). 98 entrance, on either side of the door, are two large windows about 3 0 ft. high, equipped with light-filtering thermolux panes and adjustable blinds. The lower gallery has 19 windows, which shed light both downwards and upwards; but there are none in the upper gallery, in order that direct lighting may be avoided. The ceiling of the central room and of the corridor around it consists of a skylight made of glass tiles set in cement and a laylight of thermolux plates. The artificial lighting comes from a series of mercury-vapour tubes of the daylight type fitted in the galleries and the skylight; and there are similar tubes in each showcase. In the side-rooms are 12 ordinary incandescent lamps, attached to reflectors which hang from the ceiling on movable stems. The ventilation of the central room-which is necessary in the summer, in view of the great heat-is provided by means of a series of gratings in the ceiling, through the velaria, connected with shafts that draw off the warm air; while down below there are brass gratings in the walls, through which the room receives the cooler air. The part of the building below ground level, where the lines of the side-rooms and the gallery are followed (the central room stands on solid ground), comprises the store-rooms (with shelves affixed to the malls), the photographic laboratory, the restoration laboratory (with hoisting carriage carrying up to 3 tons of weight), a workshop and a carpenter's shop. The small exhibits are displayed in showcases, of which there are 16 down the centre of the lower gallery, in the intervals between the windows; in the upper gallery there are another 16, placed in like position, but also 19 smaller ones inserted in niches which, here, take the place of windows. The main, i.e. the central showcases, which are fairly large, are made entirely of glass, and stand on walnut bases (fig. 2 I). T H E E X C A V A T I O N S . As we have said, the project dating from 1940 provided for the arranging of the archaeological material on the basis of absolute priority for that of Foce Sele (fig. 20); but after I 944 the situation completely changed. For the Soprintendenza alle Antichit di Salerno had now embarked on large-scale activities and had, as a result of several excavation campaigns, added consider- ably to the archaeological collections of Paestum. The first discoveries were those from the eneolithic cemetery of the Gaudo; these were followed by excava- tions in the Iron Age cemetery of the Arenosola, and in the district of Arcioni, where Greek and Lucanian tombs were f0und.l But the excavations which really underlined the importance of Paestum, and yielded outstanding results by reason of the number2 and artistic and documentary value of the objects discovered, were those carried out at Paestum in 19j 2. These marked the beginning of the city's no less than 13 temples-the two largest of which bore the conventional names of the Basilica and Temple of Neptune-all dedicated to the same goddess as that worshipped in the Sele sanctuary, Hera Argiva, the goddess of fecundity, as was clearly shown by the votive objects in the deposits, and by epigraphic material. Apart from the hoards, which yielded a wealth of fictile statuettes, vases, coins and 23. MUSEO DI PAESTUM, Paestum. hftopc d'un et casque (envi- non identifie. Guerrier systematic excavation. They brought to light its southern sanctuary, containing ron 490 a\-. J.-C., ' J . hietope from an unidentified building. Warrior in aTmour (about 190 B.C.). ornaments, there were discovered fragments of architectonic material, marble sculpture, small bronzes, large-size clay sculpture, ivories, and engraved gems-all objects which, together with the deposit of the Temple of Ceres (which has been identified as an Athenaionj, give us a fairly exact and complete idea of the life, art and main forms of worship of Poseidonia. This naturally raised the problem of how the 99 material was to be accommodated within the museum. The question was solved by assigning the whole of the lower floor (except the interior of the central room) to the Sele sanctuary, the upper floor to the cemeteries and the Paestum deposits, and the interior of the central room to certain salient aspects of the art of Poseidonia. T H E LOWER F L O O R O F THE M U S E U M . The two side-rooms contain fragments of 24. MUSEO DI PAESTUM, Paestum. Mtope du The- sauras del Sele, Zeus, le iberas poluizoii et la mort de Patrocle. Lx mtope reprsentant Zeus at retrouve incomplte : on a combl les lacunes par des essais de reconstitution au trait, sur des plaques de ciment. 24. Metope from the Thesauros del Sele. Zeus, the theras polcmorr and the death of Patrocles. The metope was found incomplete and line drawings on cement have been used to fill in the gaps in an attempt to reconstruct the whole design. architectonic and sculptured material in sandstone, from the Sele Heraion. In the right-hand room are six metopes from the frieze of the larger temple, dating from the last IO years of the vIth century B.C. A kneeling bowman is sculptured on the first; the others show a dance of young girls advancing in couples (jg. zz), the last one, a dancer alone looking Near the wall facing the room's entrance are features from the cornice and its moulding, with lion-headed ornamentation from the rain-gutters, belonging to the same temple. In the left-hand koom there are two showcases contaiiiing various fragments of archaic sculpture in sandstone, which were found in different parts of the sanctuary; outstanding here is the small torso of a warrior, an example of refined workmanship. Low down, against the wall facing the entrance, are two features, with rosette ornamentation, from the upper cornice of the wall of the ancient thnsam-os; higher up, there are a few metopes from unidentified buildings. Two of these are outstanding; the first, which was chiselled at a later epoch so that it might serve as stone for building, displays two marching figures; the torso of one of -- - - them was discovered, and its surface is rough. Both, evidently, had their bodies protected with a metal :shield. This metope would appear to date from about 130 B.C. The other represents a warrior in full armour moving to the attack in a leftward direction, turning his body and holding his shield slantwise; 21. MUSEO DI P A E ~ T U ~ ~ , Paestum. b f to~e du Th- this movement, together with the features of the helmet, which has ringlets in relief, places the date of this metope at about 490 B.C. (jg. zp ) . In the entrance-hall there are three archaic Doric capitals; one, in limestone, is from the larger temple; the two others, in sandstone, come respectively from the thesauros and from an unknown building. Flanking the door through which the central room is entered are two further sandstone capitals from the fore-part of the thesutcros: their form is characteris tic of the sawos del Selc. Les satyres attaquant Hra defendue par Hrakls. Ulysse mont sur une tortue de mer, et la poursuite des Leucippides par les Dioscures. hfetope from the ~ h ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , . ~ ~ delstir. The assault bJ, the Sileni onHera, defendedby Hercules, Ulysses on a turtle, and Castor and Pollux pursuing the Leucippidi. 26. MUSEO DI PAESTUM, Paestum, Mtope du The- sauros del Sele. Oreste tuant agisthe, et Clytemnestre menaant son fils avec une hache double tranchant. 26. Metope from the Thesariros del SPIP. Orestes kill- ing Aegisthus, and Clytemnestra threatening her son with a double-headed ase. I O 0 Paestum style, and they are decorated in very fine relief-with rosettes, palmettes and lotus-blooms, and waves4 On the higher part of the wall of the central room, as we noted, is the frieze of the thesagiros, dating from the first half of the vIth century B.C. Some of the metopes were found incomplete, and line drawings on cement have been used to fill in the gaps in an attempt to - - reconstruct the whole design. These can be taken down to make way for the original ones should they be found as a result of the excavation work (jg. 24). These metopes fall into various groups, illustrating, as they do, various myths; some, which are unfinished, are merely traced, so to speak, in the so-Et stone, and simply show the outline of the figures, though the outline is sharp; in others, where the work has reached a more advanced stage, more detail has been filled in, there is incipient moulding of certain surfaces, and muscular features are visible. Others, again, have been completed in every respect. On the western side, three metopes display the assault by the Sileni on Hera, defended by Hercules; on another is a virile male figure (probably Ulysses on a turtle) and two further ones show Castor and Pollux pursuing the Leucippidi ('fig. 21). On the northern side we have, in sequence, the scenes of the rape of Leto, the killing of Tityos by Artemis and Apollo, Orestes pursued by the maternal fury, Zeus, the theras polenioz{, the lament of Helen and Andromache for the death of Hector, Hecuba beside her son's death-bed, the killing of Patroclus, the ambushing of Troilus by Achilles, a centaur (much mutilated), and finally Hercules bringing back the Erymanthian boar to the palace of Eurystheus. The six metopes of the east side illustrate Hercules' killing of the centaurs on Mount Pholoe. Some of the centaurs here are presented with great dramatic power, particularly one of them who is supporting his head on his hand, and another who has collapsed in a shapeless mass of human arms and horses' legs. Hercules' exploits continue on to the northern side, with the struggle with Anteus, the adventure of the Cercopids, the rescue of Deianira, the fight for the Tripod a t Delphi, and the battle with the Nemean lion. There follow two scenes from the myth of Pelias, and two more from the Oresteia- Orestes killing Aegisthus, and Clytemnestra who, held back by the nurse (and not by Talthybius, as the dramatic version has it), is straining to attack her son with the double-headed axe ( fg . z 6). This wonderful series of mythical representations is comparable in importance to the ark of Cypselus, by reason of its content and artistic value, and is probably the most complete and homogeneous unit of ancient sculpture that we possess. Within the central room there are but a few exhibits of major interest, all of them found at Paestum. In consequence, there is sufficient space in the room for it to be used, if need be, for meetings or for lectures. Near the wall at the far end there is a large fictile statue representing a sitting god (fg. 27), almost certainly Zeus;5 this must have been the statue which, together-very probably-with one of Hem, was the object of worship in one of the ancient temples of the sanctuary6 [A]. Its discovery is of prime importance to our knowledge of the art of Poseidonia; it is, in fact, the finest example yet traced of a local school of group statuary, of which we possess other more or less fragmentary specimens, almost all of them discovered in the course of the 19) z excavations. One of these is exhibited in the same room [BI. The work placed opposite this second fictile statue, however, is completely different, both in its conception and in the artistic environment from which it emanated. This is a bronze figure-the only large bronze hitherto found at Paestum-representing Silenus Marsyass [CI. High up on the walls there are fictile moulding and cornice features, multi- coloured and with graffito-decoration, coming from a small archaic temple whose foundations are to be seen near the south side of the so-called Temple of Ceres. There are also two mouldings with false rain-gutters from the so-called Basilica, while over the door are those-in a better state of preservation-from the Temple of Ceres. These are in sandstone, with rain-gutters having powerfully modelled lion- head decoration, flanked by delicately-carved palmettes and lotus-flowers in relief. Beside the door there are two Ionic capitals, likewise in sandstone, belonging to the pronaos of the same temple which, as is known, had eight Ionic columns. These are the most ancient Ionic capitals in Italy and resemble, in form, those of Asia Minor.g The 16 showcases in the lower gallery display the material (mostly f i d e ) found in the Sele sanctuary and recovered from its deposits and its bothroi, as well as from the cemeteries in the vicinity. The objects are arranged topographically; only in the first and last showcases are they set out according to types. In the first, the various statuettes show the development of the Hera type throughout the centuries [D]. The next showcase contains fragments of Corinthian and proto-Corinthian vases- some of them figured-which were found in the sanctuary and under the cella in the larger temple. With the following showcases there begins the exhibition of the objects found in the deposits. These are mostly fictile female statuettes, repre- senting the bringers of offerings; they are largely from the Hellenistic period, but they also include more ancient figures, as in the case of a tasteful choros; in the back- ground, are grouped small figures of women dancers, holding hands and moving in a circle, to the sound of a flute which is played by an auletris [E]. [A] The god was sitting on a wooden stool or backless throne (the painted ornamentation of the dress is, in fact, repeated on the back); the god's outer garment is a clinging, light yellow chiton, and there is a red himation, closely drawn and fitting slantwise across the chest, with the folds dropping in front and behind and the hems being adorned with a dog-tooth design of alternating red and black and a maze motif at the bottom. The varied colours have been largely preserved; the face is red, while the beard, which is shaped and brought out in slight relief, is black; the moustache is in conventionalized style and painted simply, while the hair falls on the back in ample plaits with pointed ends, and over the shoulders in, as it were, strings of oval pearls. On the head there was a crown with bronze leaves, some features of which remain. The hands, which were outstretched, probably held the patera and the sceptre. The figure's position and drapery strongly recall that of Zeus in tuff stone on the pediment of the Acro- polis of Athens, with the return of Herakles to Olympus. It is a local piece of work, of Ionic influence but with a slight Attic flavour, as is seen in the shape of the mouth, which bears a resem- blance to that of the Caiiaalier Rampin.7 The type of the dress, in which the figure is sheathed and which forms few parallel or very complicated folds, and the position of rigidity, permit us to place the statue's date in the third quarter of the vrth century B.C. It is a small upright, virile figure attired, like Zeus, in a chiton and an oblique himation, and sandals. It is acephalous, lacking the arms and a good part of the left side. Its drapery, which is similarly multicoloured (a yellow chiton and a red himation) and fits close to the body, and the form of the footwear, likewise betray an Ionic influence. In style and technique it resembles the Zeus statue closely, and it dates from much the same period. The head, which is a Greek work of the vth century B.C., does not entirely harnionize with the body, which is a local product of the mrd or IInd century B.C., attributable to Lucanians. Indeed the head, which is distinguished in its way though somewhat faun-like, contrasts with the over-long, graceless body on its short legs. In the beginning-i.e. at the end of the vnth century B.c.-the goddess was represented enthroned, with the polos on her head, a baby held upon her left arm, and a pomegranate in her right hand which is missing. Only the Daedalian head is really lifelike and featured; the rest of the figure is merely suggestive, cast in the shape of a broad but thin curved surface; it rests, at the back, against two small clay supports, representing the feet of the throne. When ancient art had matured, the goddess was portrayed on a throne, with an air of majesty, holding the patera in her right hand and, in her left, a basket of pomegranates-the latter, like the lily, being a symbol of fecundity.l" On occasion, the seat-in statues bigger than that here described-is adorned, at each end of the back, with winged sphinxes. In some cases the goddess is represented in the form of a bust, with the patem in one hand and an Eros on the left shou1der;'l or a type of figure that one often comes acros;, which is seated-naked or clothed-with the arms close to the body and the hands on the knees. A feature of the Ivth century B.C. is the figure of Hera Eileithyia (fis. r8) , one of the finest fictile statuettes known, and undoubtedly the most beautiful of all those discovered in the sanctuary. From the himation, which covers the head and the back, there issues forth, so to speak, the kneeling figure in all its bashful nakedness, in the primitive position of labour, but without any deformation of p. 103 3 [B] [c] [D] IO1 27. MUSEO DI PAESTUAI, Paestum. Statue de Zeus. 27. Fictile statue of Zeus. 28. h f u s ~ o DI PAESTUBI, Paestum. Herd Eilithya 28. Hen Eilithyn. I02 Apart from these Corinthian specimens, not many vases have been cound in the sanctuary; they mostly originate from Lucania and Paestum, but there are a few examples of black or red figured Attic pottery. Among these should be mentioned a lekythos with a flying figure of Nike upon it, and a fragment which portrays a bearded minstrel, throwing his head backwards. Both are cast in an Attic severe style; the second is attributed to Brygos. There is a wealth of bronze objects-bosses, small hinges, fish-hooks, clasps, a mirror-stand with spiral scrolls and palmettes, a door- handle also decorated with palmettes,13 and a few arms.14 The only figured bronze is an interesting statuette of Camillus, dating from the 1st century B.C. In precious metals, apart from a few silver coins of Magna Graecia and the Roman Republic, there are some laminae and an ear-ring of gold, and three strips of silver-belonging to diadems-into which were inserted leaves of gold that are now lost. The bofhroi material consists mostly of Lucanian and Roman vases-none of them of great value. The last showcase contains vases of the Bronze Age, from the Santa Cecilia cemetery; fragments of Arab and Byzantine pottery; and the furnishings of a womans tomb of the Lucanian period (end of the Ivth century B. C.).^^ The furnishings, apart from I I small bronze fibulae, consist of 4 vases, one of them a gamikds Iebes bearing the figure of a naked woman kneeling and mirroring herself in the presence of a winged Eros. T H E UPPER GALLERY. This is all devoted to Paestum, and much space in its 35 showcases is taken lip by material that came to light as a result of the 1.95 z excava- tions. At one end of the gallery, on the two walls flanking the entrance stairways, there are four slabs of stuccoed and painted travertine, taken from a Lucanian sarcophagus of the Ivth century B.C. [FI. The first four showcases are devoted to the prehistory of Paestum and its neigh- bourhood, and the artifacts which they contain show that this region and the area of the city itself were inhabited from the most ancient times. The first showcase displays paleolithic and neolithic flints, polished neolithic stones, eneolithic flint blades, bronze axes with winged ends and small Bronze Age votive vases-all coming from around the precincts of the so-called Basilica. Another item exhibited is the fine, substantial series of flint daggers from the eneolithic cemetery of Gaudo, which has also supplied two copper daggers. Pottery from the same cemetery is displayed in two large showcases, which contain examples of every form of vase,16 from the globular jug, with its variants, to the nskos and the salt-jar. These vases, which are beautifully shaped and perfectly preserved, bear some similarity to the pottery of the 2nd stratum (eneolithic) of Troy, with which they are contemporary (2400-1900 B.C.). The Iron Age (Ixth-vnth centuries), represented by the Arenosola cemetery (on the right bank of the Sele) in a showcase containing the furnishings of various tombs-a mixture of vases, principally double-amphoras with two vertical handles and spread mouths, and bowls with a high brim and a high vertical handle, iron lances, bronze fibulae and armillae, and a few examples of ear-rings in silver thread, with amber pendants. Then come the cemeteries of the Classical Age, with their Greek vase-work (black-figured Attic, as well as Ionic and Corinthian products) from the Arcioni region, and similar Lucanian work from the Spinatzo and Porta Aurea. The furnishings from a tomb in this locality comprise, apart from the vases (one of them of the school of Asteas), a fine Italic cuirass of bronze, in an excellent state of preservation. Of the Greek vases, the outstanding one is a magnificent hydria of Fikellura,17 in which great individuality of form is combined with perfect execution of the decoration. We now proceed to the series of votive deposits. These, by reason of their wealth of often highly artistic contents, have provided irrefutable evidence as to the main forms of worship prevailing in the city and in its temples, which were hitherto associated, by arbitrary convention, with various specific deities; they have shown that the southern sanctuary, including the two larger temples (the Basilica and the Temple of Neptune), was dedicated to Hera, and the northern one to Athene and other divinities. No less than 14 showcases of selected material are devoted to the deposits of the so-called Temple of Neptune;18 although the display is arranged on topographical criteria-in the light of the objects distribution in the various finds-the form of the deposits themselves, and the wealth and variety of the mate- rial, have enabled the statuettes to be classified according to typology and chrono- logy. A showcase exhibits archaic types, all representing the goddess Hera [GI. The Heraion of Poseidonia, like that of the Sele, is very rich in little figures of offerers, flower women, and symbols of fecundity-pomegranates, lilies, doves. The Eileithyia bv . pac i~ is reproduced in several examples, though always in fragmen- tary form. In two instances the goddess is represented like Juno-Cybele, with the tympanon in her left hand, seated on a peacock with its tail-feathers outspread in a great fan. There are also, from the Hellenistic period, figures of Aphrodite and Athene. Apart from the statuettes, the ex voto fictile objects include small models of temples, censers and paterae. There are two particularly fine paterae, with identical ornamentation in the shape of palmettes and lotus-flowers in relief, evidently copied from bronze originals of the vth century B.C. Very many vases have been recovered from the deposits; they are representative of all periods, from the Corinthian to the Roman. From the Attic period there is a superb amphora, 24 inches high, in the severe style, possibly the work of Nikoxenos; it shows, on one side, Amazons who are arm- ing and, on the other, the capture of Cerberus by Hercules. But the main material consists of vases from Southern Italy-especially those from Paestum, which are so numerous that the existence, at the time, of a local factory can no longer be doubted. Many of them are painted after the manner of Asteas; one gai/iikos lebes, for instance, portraying the Judgment of Paris, can almost certainly be attributed to the masters hand.20 There are frequent examples of nuptial cups, which were evidently votive offerings from young brides. Among the various bronzes found is a statuette of Camillus, with the patera in the right hand, dating from the end of the rrnd century B.C. Many arrow-heads and hall-like missiles emphasize the warlike character of the goddess. The deposit of the so-called Basilica is substantially identical with that of the preceding temple. The proof that it, too, was dedicated to the goddess of the white arms is supplied, not only by the statuettes, but by various fragments of vases, on which the name HP.1 is inscribed. The deposit of temple No. j is of the same nature. It is particularly rich in ivory, gold, silver and bronze objects; the most important relic found in it with regard to the worshipping of Hera (who is in this instance hoplosmia) is a silver disc weighing j70 grammes, on which is cut, in the characters peculiar to the beginning of the vrth century B.C., the inscription: TLiX HPXB TAPON FIWNTf-rI TOXAhIIN. Other interesting objects from this deposit are a silver lily, bronze mirrors, gold rings (one of which bears the imprint of a female figure with two faces), an ivory comb and two strings of coral. The deposit of Italic temple No. 6 is very typical, and of special interest. It origi- nally belonged to an ancient temple, of which parts of the architectonic decoration have been found, and accordingly contains votive material both of ancient date and of the period when, in Lucanian times, the temple was put once more into use. At both stages Hera was the goddess worshipped, but in the second period the ex voto offerings were of a crudely realistic type. For the more ancient period we find the type of the goddess enthroned and that common to the Paestum area, to which, at the end of the vth century B.C., is added that-in beautiful examples-of the koiuotrophos, which, in the goddess-mothers position of dignity and benevolence of face and gesture, recalls certain Madonnas of the xvth century in Italy. The cult of motherhood is displayed to even greater effect, in this deposit, by the presence of hundreds of statuettes of babies in swaddling-clothes, with strings of amulets across their breasts and pointed pileus-caps on their heads; a remarkable quantity of fictile uteri; and trunks of female statues reproducing the Iower half of the body big with child, these being used by Italic mothers to place themselves under the protection of the goddess. These, then, are symbols of motherhood, but symbols far removed from the delicate idealization of Eileithyia. The numerous bronzes in this deposit consist, mostly, of large rings. The deity to which the so-called Temple of Ceres was dedicated has also, thanks to the discovery of its deposit, been identified-it is, as we have seen, Athene. Showcases exhibit the votive offerings, which include ancient statuettes portraying Athena Lindia, as well as many statuettes, selected from hundreds of examples, of the goddess standing fully armed, covering a period extending from the vIth century the body, which Greek feeling for the ideal and Greek aesthetic taste would not have tolerated12. On the figures shoulders are two duinzones propoloi, who are aiding and comforting the goddess at the supreme moment; and Hera holds in her right hand a dove, the symbol of love and fecundity. They are stylized and differ only in their heads and arms, which are cast in very primitive form. The statuettes of the offering bearers are all clothed with chiton and himation, but differ in the arrangement of the drapery, in their attitudes and in the head-dress, which is often elaborate and extravagant, in a style subsequently to be met with in the xvmth century. There are also, among these figures, certain small heads belonging CO statuettes of Athene, andanumber ofbusts offemale figures,whose heads are adorned with a lily; these are the so-called flower women who at the same time are ex votos symbolizing fecundity, and tl,ymiutrriu (censers). The two smaller ones, which constituted the two end sides of the tomb, bear in the one case the figure of a departing warrior on horseback, whose Italic helmet is adorned with two long feathers at the sides of the lopbos, and in the other a few pome- granates, one of which forms the centre of a crown; one of the long sides displays a chariot race, and the other two wrestlers (who are locked in combat and are being stimulated by a double-flute player) and a gladiatorial fight. Two small Daedalic heads are of the same type as the older statuette of the Sele sanctuary. Particular interest attaches to one statuette (there are other similar, though less complete ones) re- presenting a naked female figure with the polos on its head; this is obviously inspired by the Phni- cian Astarte, the goddess-mother, likewise a re- presentative of fecundity, identified, by association, with Hera. The double character of the goddess, who apart from being the peaceful guardian of conjugal love and childbirth is also, sometimes, armed (bo$.hJ/fIiU),9 is clearly revealed in two statuettes, which are more or less alike in their upper part. Their faces are the same, they have the same head-dress topped by the polos, and they are wearing the same peplos with apoptygma. But one has its body ending in a sort of sharp wedge, which was meant to be inserted in an upright cylinder- shaped base; its right aini is flexed and uplifted, with the hand closed (it carried a lance) in the attitude of the protzucbos; while the left forearm, thrust foreward but broken off, almost certainly bore a shield. The other, however, was sitting peacefully on a throne. Various representative fragments show the conventionalized form of the lower part of this second type of statuette, in which throne and dress form a sort of bridge on whose crown the body rests. The next showcase displays the full range of transition in the portrayal of the goddess, from the most archaic forms up to the most classical; some of the types, especially of the second period, are the Same as those found in the Sele sanctuaty; others are peculiar to Paestum alone. One of the oldest statuettes, whose lower part shows the bridge foim- ation, preserves the delicate multicoloured element of red and black traced on a white background; others, somewhat longer and very finely executed in soft lines, have the right hand on the breast, holding a lily. Outstanding, because of its proportions, is another very imposing statuette, of the end of the archaic period. Standing some 19 high, it represents the goddess seated on a throne; she wears a peplos, with ample draping; on her veiled head rests the polos, and in her right hand the pomegranate, while her left hand, which is missing, was evidently car- rying the patera. This statuette, of which no other examples have been found, is artistically of a standard higher than that of the other figures. [E] [F] [G] I . Gaudo cemetery, Retul. ddlAccadeniia di Napoli, Vol. XXIII, 1947-1948, p. I sqq. Nothing has yet been published on the Arenosola escavations; Arcioni excavations, Noti+ degli Scaii, Rome, 1951, p. 135. 2 . The objects found number about a million. 3. The sculpture in the largest temple and that of the various unidentified iheJ-amoi have been the subject of a publication by P. Zancani-hiontuoro and U. Zanotti-Bianco, Heraiofz alla Foce del Sele, Rome, 1951, Libreria dello Stato. 4. Not. dcgliScazi, Rome, 1937, p. 271, figs. 44-47. 5 . It was found, in fragments, on 5 August 1952, partly inside and partly outside the third loculus of the deposit of the so-called Temple of Neptune. The legs represent, almost entirely, restoration work; the feet, the right arm, and the upper part of the face are missing. Height, 0.92 m. 6. V e r y often the small votive figures, whether from the Heraion of the Sele or of Poseidonia, include those of the divine couple Zeus-Hem. 7. E. Langlotz, W. H. Schuchhardt, Archainhe Plas- iik anjder Akropolis,Berlin,Biuckmann, 1938,pl. 5,6. 8. A. Riaizullo, La statua di Marsyas e la Colo- nia Latina di Paestum, in Aifi della S.I.P.S., Societi Italiana per il Progresso delle Scienze, Vol. V, October 1932. 9. One of them was found in 1947; it is published in Noi i@e degli Scari, 1948, p. 154, fig. I , and Bol- leiiitio dArte, Rome, 1948, p. 335, figs. I and 2; also by F. Krauss, Al i i i . d. Dr.ufs6.h. Arch. hf., Munich, 1949, No. I. The second was discovered in 1952. A capital similar to the Paestum ones was discovered recently at Marseilles by Prof. F. Benot, who was good enough to inform the author about it. IO. This type-the one most frequently met with, and commonly called L a Pesfatza-was already known; there are a few esamples in the National Museum of Naples; sep A. Levi, Le ferrecoffejguratc del i W m o Nartj,tiale di Napoli, p. 98, No. 419-422, fig. 81. For the archaic type, see Noti@ degh Scari 1937, pp. 220, ZZI, figs. 5 , 6. I I . Notije degli Scaii I 9 37. p. 3 34, fig. 8 5 ./I 2 . Ihid., p. 219, fig. 9 / 1 3 , Ibid., p. 292, figs. 61-65. 14. These are associated with the Loplosmia charac- ter which the goddess sometimes assumed and which is better featured in the relics from the urban sanctuary of Poseidonia, exhibited in the upper gallery. 15. N o t i ~ i e degli ScaL*i 1952, p. 164. 16. Because of the large quantity of Tases reco- vered in this cemetery, a typological description has been given, both for reasons of space and in order to avoid useless repetition on the subject of form. For a specialized description, see the report mentioned in Rmd. dellAccademia di Napoli. 17. Archeologia Classida. Rome, 19j0, II, I, p. I sqq. 18. These deposits were made up of an immense quantity of material distributed inside and outside 4 large niches on the north side of the temple. They were excavated between 1 5 July and 13 Sept. 1952. 19. Cf. the Juno Lanuvina. 20. A study on this viise will shortly be pub- lished in A d c o l q i a Classica. 21. Discovered in 1907, and published by M. Guarducci in Noiiyie dgli S(:ati, 1948, p. IS^. m. Previously, only 3 small bronzes of Paestan origin were known: a support-figure at Berlin (U. Jantzen, WerksiZtfeti, pl. 26, Nos. 107-109); the es voto of Phillo, at Berlin (E. Langlotz, Friihgriechische Bildhaiierschden, p. 104, No. IS; A. Neugebauer, A d k e Bro~iZesfaii,cffe~~., Berlin, 1921, fig. 34), and the StLtuette of an ogering bearer in the Museo Profano of the Vatican Library (S. Reinach, Rperioirr de la Sfaiiiaire, Tome V, Vol. 1, p. 2 3 5 , figs. 3, 4 and 5 ) . 23. This group will shortly be the subject of publication in Bolleititi0 dArfc . 24. It was discovered north of the so-called Temp!e of Neptune, on 20 August 1952. to the Hellenistic age. Here, too, there is epigraphic evidence in support of the iden- tification, in the shape of the rim of a large vase on which is inscribed, in ancient Latin, the dedication: m] ENERVA [e. Another showcase contains small figures of Aphrodite, Eros and women dancers, belonging to the deposit of an as yet unexcavated temple dedicated to Aphrodite Pandemos Epitragia-different, in aspect, from the Aphrodite Urania of Hera. Three showcases are devoted to the most important features of Poseidonian art. In the first, there are fragments of large-scale fictile sculpture of the type and artistic level of the statue of Zeus (jg. 27). The outstanding exhibit is undoubtedly the group showing Europa on the bull, dating from the end of the vIth century B.C.; of the female figure there remains only part of the left leg, draped, whereas almost the whole of the bulls front part has been preserved. It is very fnely executed, and covered with blue enamel varnish; and the hair over the brows of the bull has been arranged in spiral ringlets, in silver. Another very interesting feature is the hands and the right foot of a koztros, of life size. The third showcase shows fragments of f i d e architectonic ornamentation from archaic temples that have, for the most part, disappeared. In the centre is a large body-shield bearing a gorgons head, with lower down ornamental fragments of cornice scroll-work and festoons. Note- worthy, too, are fragments of cornice with astragals and rosettes, of the Aeolian type. Finally an archaic cippus in sandstone, inscribed XIP12NOl,21 is to be seen and a statuette of peplophoros in marble, a copy of an original from the middle of the vth century B.C. Between these exhibits is a showcase containing 14 sniall bronzes, almost all of them archaic;2z they include two figures of sphinxes and two koztroi. There is a very remarkable pentagonal antefix, on which are painted, in white, the figures of a goddess and of a giant anguiped; having regard to vase paintings, its date may be set at about 460 B.C. In ivory, there are two series of small plaques in relief, of the mth century B.C.; the first portrays a composite scene, with sacred games, athletes competing, and armed dances; the second consists of four tablets, bearing various scenes, designed to adorn a small casket. There are, also in ivory, other very delicate works of art: a tiny ancient lion (I 2 inches), and two exquisitely formed statuettes representing Athene struggling with Enceladus.23 Accompanying these objects are Phoenician glass pastes, cut carnelians, fragments of gold crowns, and a large gold ear-ring with filigree decoration. The finest exhibit here-it is in fact one of the gems of the museum-is a female head in Greek island marble, an Italiote product of about 4So B. C.^^ It was designed for insertion in a metope of different material-probably sandstone-by the same process as can be observed in the metopes of the Heraion of Selinunte. The remaining exhibits in this showcase consist of the finest examples of coins found during the excavations, including many incused medals from Poseidonia and from other cities of Magna Graecia. In order that the visitor may have a clear idea of the significance of the objects exhibited and the places from which they originated, the museum has been equipped with various plans and diagrams. In the lower gallery, apart from the plan and the reconstruction of the largest Sele temple, there are general plans of the excavation area and the bofhroi sections. On the upper floor there are plans, not only of the Gaudo cemetery, but of two tombs, showing the exact position of the skeletons and of the furnishings at the time when they were discovered; as well as a large chart reproducing the whole of the sacred area of Paestum, together with a plan of all the existing edifices and of those discovered in 1912, including the deposits, with an indication of all the area excavated. The showcases contain a wealch of explana- tory and instructional notices; and, in addition, the smaller though still noteworthy objects, like gems, filigree-worked material, etc., are placed on suitable plexiglass supports, equipped with magnifying lenses. The administration has already assembled various publications on the antiquities and monuments of Paestum, with the object of equipping the museum with a small specialized library, for consultation by students and experts. ( Tramlated jrom Italiatz)