The restoration of the Royal Palace in Budapest and the installation of the museum

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  • La restauration du Chteau royal de Budapest et lamnagement dun muse

    par Lszl Gerij La plus belle partie du panorama du Danube, a Budapest, tait la colline de Htlda, slevant au bord du flcuvc, surmonte de lancien palais royal (fig-. JO). Au tournant de ce sikcle, le palais baroque fut agrandi en style no-baroque. Ainsi fut con\titu le clbre ensemble sur lemplacement du chteau royal mdival. Ce dernicr est seulement mentionn par les chroniques ; quelques picrrcs qui sc trouvent au hlL1se municipal sont supposkes en provenir. Le fait que seule Gtait visible une faible partie de ses imposantes murailles, connues par les gravures des xve et S V I ~ sicles, aggravait cette incertitude.

    Au cours des hostilits de 1944-1945, le palais entier a kt incendik et ses jardins dagrment dktruits. Cest dans les ruines encore fumantes que lon a entrepris de rechercher les vestiges de la rsidence royale si fameuse au moyen ge, du Nouveau palais gothique du roi Sigismond de Luxembourg ( I 387-1437), ainsi que des cons- tructions du dbut de la Renaissance, du roi Mathias Hunyadi (1458-1490), qui ont fait la splendeur de Buda et qui ont t dcrits par les clbres globe-trotters George Brown et Pedro Tafur, et que le grand voyageur turc, Evliya Chelebi a appel le Palais de la Pomme dor.

    Les fouilles archologiqucs furent entreprises en 1946, sous la direction de Lszl Gerevich, conservateur du Muse municipal, et ds le dbut rvlrent dintressants fragments. Tour tour, on dcouvrit la grande salle sud du palais (fig. 29), les salles votes de la tour et du donjon Istvn, les murailles paisses du grand bastion du sud (fig. J I ) , et les vestiges de la chapelle gothique (fig. 32). Les pierres sculptes permirent de reconstituer maints dtails architecturaux et, ainsi quon pouvait sy attendre dans une rsidence royale multisculaire, dinnombrables armes, poles et objets domestiques dune grande varit ont t mis au jour.

    Le palais construit la pointe sud de la colline de Buda, ainsi que lagglomration bourgeoise occupant les autres parties du plateau, sont dune poque relativement plus rcente; seul, un ensemble dhabitations de moindre importance peut tre considr comme antrieur au milieu du X I I I ~ sicle. Ce nest quaprks linvasion des Mongols, que le roi Bla IV, de la maison dArpd, entreprit la construction des chteaux forts,

    29. KIRALYI PALUTA, Budapest. La grande salle du palais reconstituke. Lcs parties neuves se distinguent aistment des parties originalcs. Lcs pierres rapportes ont t sculptkes de facon ii reconstituer les formcs essentielles, mais leur surface a t laisske i ltat brut. Au lieu dcs votes appareilles, on a fait des votes de bCton arm& rccouvcrt dun crpi h la chaux. Les murs nouveaux ont t i faits ct crpis de la mme faon, tandis que les murs originaux ont CtC laissks tels quils taient. Les fenitres ont t refaites avec des verrcs ancicns de couleurs ples, rappelant ceux des fentres originalcs. 29. The reconstructcd great hall of the palacc. The new elements are quitc distinct from the original ones: the new stones have been so carv- ed as to rcproducc thc csscntial forms, hut their surface has been left rough. In placc of the ori- ginal vaulting a new one was made of reinforced concrctc covcrcd with whitewash. The same coating was applied to the new walls, while the original ones were left bare. The windows are of tinted antique glass to recall the original staincd windows.

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    car ctait la le seul moyen pour les Hongrois dj agriculteurs et disperss sur leurs terres de rsister aux attaques dvastatrices des cavaliers nomades Tartares.

    Malgr plusieurs transformations. les murailles mdivales qui entouraient le palais et lagglomration ont t conserves jusqu nos jours (fig. 33). Ces murailles nont pas Ci sacrifies au dveloppement urbain. Lensemble du palais, faisant corps avec

    30. KIRLYI PALOTA, Budapest. 1,ensemblc du monument historiquc et ses alentours dans le panorama de la ville.

    The mOnumcflt cllscmblc aIld the vicinity, i s part of the townscape.

    ..

    les murs denceinte, prdominait dans le panorama de la ville ; pour cette raison, les ruines enfumes, aux fcntres bantes, ont prsent aux restaurateurs un problme majeur. Fallait-il au prix de travaux extremeinent coteux restaurer un btiment gravement atteint et dont lintrieur tait complktement dtruit, ou laisser lensemble

    ltat de ruine, comme tmoignage dune guerre insense ? Aprs que de nombreuses solutions eurent t cnvisages, le gouvernement prit la dcision de remettre en tat le palais dans sa totalit, en exigeant le maintien du trac extrieur et en laissant aux auteurs du projet carte blanche quant lamnagement de lintrieur ; les organes gouvernementaux ont en m&me temps adopt les propositions faites pour la conser- vation et la rparation des parties mdivales, considres comme les plus prkcieuscs du point de vue du monument historique.

    Lors de la mise en uvre des travaux, on a dcouvert les couchcs historiques connues par ICs chroniques, et les sondages ont rvl la trs grande tendue du palais mdival. Les fouilles dc 1949 furent suivies par les travaux de reconstruction, les deux activits allant de pair jusquen 1962, lorsque les recherches prirent fin. En 1966, la restauration des parties mdivales tait acheve.

    Iarmi les travaux excuts ce jour, on peut mentionner : lexploration du sous- Sol et la reconstituti(3n dc lhistoire de lensemble architcctural, la reconstruction des faades dcs btiments baroques et ndo-baroques, lamnagement dc lintrieur de la Partie du palais la plus proche des vestiges du moyen ge. Cest l, en effet, qua t lnstalli le Muse dhistoire de Budapest, dont les expositions contribuent de manire heureuse la ConnaisSancc dc lhistoire de ce site. La reconstruction sest limite A fendre h lensemble des bitiments leur silhouette dans le paysage urbain. Cet ensemble a suLi cependant qtlelques changements dans son aspect extrieur, la toi- ture et l e ~ parties surcliarges, datant du dbut du siicle, ayant t supprimes afin de lui rendre sa physionomie dc lpoque de la reine Marie-Thrse (fig. 34). Dans la Partie du btiment donnant sur le Danube, on reconstruit actuellement les salles dans 99

    h

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    31 ji. K I K ~ L Y I PALOTA, Budapest. Le bastion sud ct sa porte fortitikc rcconstituks. Au prcmicr plan, la tour Istvhn. J I . Ihc rcstorcd southcrn round bastion and its gate tower, with Istvans tower in the fore- ground.

    32. KIRALYI PALUTA, Budapest. 1.a partic intC- ricurc basse reconstituke de la chapelle du palais, dite de Saint-Jean IAumOnier. Les murs et les champs de vote nouveaux se reconnaissent i lcurs briqucs dc faiblcs dimcnsions, lcs o& rives et les encadrements des fenitres :d la surface gros- sibre de la pierre neuve, comme dans la grande salle. Lc revktcment du sol, cil marbrc rougc, cache les tuyaux de chauffage. 32. Thc rcconstructcd lowcr part of thc chapel named after John the Almsgiver. The new walls and vaulting are indicated by small-sized bricks, the new stone ribs and window-framcs by the rough surface of their stone. The floor-covering of red marble hides the pipes of the central heating.

    I. De 1948 1 1958, larchitecte en chef fut Istvn JanBky, puis partir de 1958 Lajos EIidasi, tandis que la recoiistruction des parties mCdiC- vales a t confie ii lauteur de ces lignes.

    2. Au cours de cette exploration on a d cnlever 35 o00 mtres cubes de terre intru mwos, et 30 000, extra muros.

    3 . Lhistoriographe Bonfini nous raconte que le roi ordonna lamnagement de parcs, dalles, de ddales o SC trouvaient des animaux, des oiseaux rares, des statues de bronze et de marbre, des cramiques somptueuses. Le dessin du maitrc Wolgcmuth aux cnvirons dc 1467 (Wdtcbronic, Nuremberg, 1493) nous montre la physionomie du palais et du chteau du c6t du Danubc (fig. J I ) ; lcs gravurcs sur bois dtirhard Schon ( I 541 j reprksentent les parties donnant sur louest. Quant au ct sud, nous avons utilisk les dcssins cxccutcs sur les lieux mmes en 1686 par le gnral dartillerie Hallart. Conformbment aux renseignements de Paolo Giovio nous avons considrk que les fortifica- tions construites pour prvenir lattaque des Turcs dataient de 1734-1540 et quelles btaient Iceuvre de larchitecte Domenico da Bologna.

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    32 lesquelles sera installe la Galerie nationale dart hongrois. Dans laile nord sera log le Muse dhistoire contemporaine, tandis que le corps de btiment du quartier Krisztina (construit entre 1881-1 891, par Mikls Ybl, larchitecte de lOpra de Budapest) abritera la Bibliothque nationale, installe jusquici au Muse natioiial1.

    en vogue la fin du sicle dernier. Aprs le dblaiement, les murs du chteau ont retrouv leur aspect originel. La premire difficult a consist trouver une tnain- dcuvre spcialise.

    Les fouilles effectues partir de 194j au chteau et au palais de Buda, ainsi que dans les maisons dhabitation mdivales entourant le chteau, nous ont conduit, peu peu, dvelopper des mthodes de protection des monuments historiques inconnues jusque-l en Hongrie et rendues possibles par les destructions de la guerre.

    En fait, la mise au jour archologique et la recherche de la documentation auraient d prcder la reconstruction proprement dite comme cest le cas pour les monu- ments historiques de plus petites dimensions. Mais, dans le cas prsent, les travaux tant de trop grande envergure, on ne pouvait attendre pour reconstruire que lexplo- ration archologique, qui a dur quelque quinze annes, soit acheve 2. Les travaux de reconstruction furent donc poursuivis paralllement, larchologue et larchitecte travaillant en troite coopration. Depuis lors, il est devenu pratique courantc de lier la recherche archologique la restauration des monuments.

    La construction de la rsidence royale avait t prcde par celle dune tour de guet, la tour Istvn, btie pour contrler la route trs ancienne qui reliait Augsbourg et Vienne Byzance, et traversait le Danube en cet endroit. Des btiments levs auprs de la tour lpoque des rois de la maison dAnjou, au X I V ~ sicle, nous ne connaissons rien de prcis, ce qui en a rendu impossible la reconstitution meme approxi- mative. Le roi hongrois suivant, Sigismond, aprs son lection au trne du Saint Empire romain, en 1410, choisit Buda non seulement comme rsidence royale, Inais aussi comme rsidence impriale. I1 fit amnager luxueusement le chteau, et lentoura de solides murailles. Lensemble du palais de Buda acquit son aspect dfinitif avec les constructions de style de la Renaissance italienne, dues au roi Mathias Cori in -.

    Daprs notre classification des constructions de forteresses, le chteau de Ruda est lexemplaire type des chteaux dits de plan irrgulier avec tours intrieures, quoiquil ait t renforc trs tt, au temps du roi Sigismond, par des tours extrieures.

    Lors de llahoration du premier projet de reconstruction, nous avons pu nous rendre compte que les murailles existantes du chteau nous fournissaient assez de points de repre pour en raliser la reconstitution. Les niveaux mdivaux sont indi- qus par des seuils de pierre rests in situ. Le projet de reconstruction prvoyait auSS1 de prsenter leurs niveaux originaux les locaux du palais, de la chapelle, de la grande salle, de la tour Istvn et du chteau Istvn, en dblayant la terre qui avait atteint une

    Le chteau mdival avait t recouvert de briques de cette Bazi~asten-,4rchi~~ktu7 -

  • J J . KIR.~LYI PAI.OTA, Budapest. Mur mkdival reconstitu en 1952. Les parties neuves se dis- tinguent des anciennes par la surfacc grossikre dc la pierre. .jj. hlcclieval castle walls reconstructcd in 1 9 ) s ~ . The tiew parts can be distinguished from thc ancient oms by the rough surface of their stone.

    34. KIRLYI PALOTA, Budapest. Le palais baroque reconstruit. Vue du cte du Danubc. 34. The restored baroque palace sccn from the Danube.

    33 174 hauteur de 6 7 mtres. Ainsi sest-on approch de la physionomie originale du chteau.

    Si lon a pu, peut-tre, critiquer lampleur des travaux, il importe cependant de savoir que la protection de monuments historiques revt en Hongrie un caractre particulier. Les souvenirs historiques y sont trs rares. Non seulement les monu- ments romains ont t dtruits mais la plupart des monuments mdivaux et de la Renaissance ont subi le mme sort ; certains viennent detre dcouverts grce des fouillcs rcentes. Unc matire si restreinte nous incite faire dcs efforts particuliers pour la prserver, la rcndre comprhensible, enfin observer rigoureusement les recommandations adoptes dans la Charte de Venise.

    De simples mesures de conservation ont t prises pour une partie des ruines : unc faible surlvation en mortier dshydrat protge le fafte des murs. Pour ce qui est de la restauration, voici quelques mthodes employes : La grande salle est cou- verte par une large vote dune porte de I I , Z O mttres. Celle-ci est divise en six ~,. champs et sappuie sur deux piliers mdians. Cet espace a t refait selon la mthode ditc de lanastylose. On possdait des donnes certaines: les murs, le dpart des votes, une fenetre restte in sitzi, ainsi que de nombreux fragments dogives, des clefs de votite, des encadrements de fenetre richement sculpts, des fragments de bancs en g;lEi:k$t ; ~ u ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ( ~ ~ ~ ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ ; pierre, ce qui nous a permis de redonner la salle son aspect origincl.

    Budapest. Vue de Buda i la fin du X V ~ sitcle, Chroniquc de Nuremberg (daprks le dessin du m a h e Wolgemuth, fait cm 1467)*

    gemuths drawing made about 1467).

  • 4. Ccs travaux ont t effectus sous la direc- tion de lingnieur paysagiste Gusztv Kiss.

    5 . Les ceuvres de peintres flamands tels que Jean Van Eyck, Roger Van der Weyden, Thierry Bouts, etc., nous renseignent fidklemeiit sur les jardins du moyen ge : parterres de fleurs rehaussks et disposs gomtriquement, bancs de gazon, tonnelles dc rosicrs, grilles de bois, etc. En gnral, le jardin est construit autour dun point central : dans la plupart des cas une fontaine ou un bassin ( fig. 39).

    KIRI divales econstri The m palace

    mtylosis

    .YI PAL( restes

    iction et ediaeval :, after of the t

    >TA, audapr sous IC palai :la remise en parts that si restoration

    )alcony.

    !St. L s barc place urvivc

    and

    .es parties >que aprs du balcon. :d beneath after the

    I I Pour assurer une circulation fluide des visiteurs, une porte a t ouverte sur le

    jardin ; son caractre provisoire est soulign par des marches en bois. Les deux balcons du palais, dont on a rctrouvk les vestiges au cours de la re\t,tura-

    tion de la grande salle, ont t rcconstruits leur placc originelle (fig. 36). Outre la grande salle, cest de la chapelle du palais (fig. 31) que lon a retrouv I C plus

    grand nombre de vestiges. 11 est fait mention pour la premire fois de cettc chapcllt. en I 366. Comme dautres chapelles dcs palais mdivaux, celle-ci tait deux niveaux, le premier tage tant rscrvd la famille royale. Avant 194j, clle ttait totalement incon- nue car elle avait dtb recouverte, du moins ce qui cn restait, par les remblais de la ter- rasse du palais baroque. Lors du dblaiement, on a dcouvert les murs du sailctuaire, le dpart des votes (fig. j7), larc triomphal du cheur et des fragmcnts dogiws, ce qui permit une reconstruction fidkle de la partie infrieurc.

    Enfin, suivant lordre successif de la reconstruction, il faut donner un bref aperu sur les jardins situs lintrieur de lenccinte du chteau.

    Les terrains extra-//nlros ont td arrangs avec des promenades la manikre des jardins anglais. Le cinietitre turc qui figure sur le dessin de Hallart (fig. 38) il t reconsti tu ainsi quun parterre fleuri devant le palais baroque 4.

    Pour recrer latmosphre historique qui mane des cours mises au jour, des intrieurs mdivaux reconstitus ct des objets qui y sont exposs, on a reconsti- tu des jardins du moyen ge (fig. 40) . En crant dans le chteau de Buda des jar- dins mddivaux, nous avons voulu attirer lattention du public sur les formes trs varies de ces jardins, sur leurs plantes, sur leurs cultures, ce qui, tout en attirant les visiteurs, prte ces jardins un r61e culturel5.

    Dans la partie sud du jardin clos, nous avons reconstitu un jardin de clotre, dans lautre partie, un jardin seigneurial o est conserv le puits Renaissance, orn des - armoiries de Mathias et de Batrice.

    Dans les parties mdivales reconstruites est installe une exposition organise selon les normes dc la musCographie moderne qui prsente les rsultats des fouilles, tandis que, dans la partie baroque, qui se trouve au-dessus et qui a aussi t remise en tat, sont amnags un cabinet de gravures de Budapest, et une autre exposition intitule : Mille annes dhistoire de la capitale (fig. 41 a, b, c ) , Ces expositions complktent heureusement les travaux de mise au jour et de reconstitution de lensemble arcliitec- tural qui symbolise le pass de la Hongrie et que lon se dcvait de faire connatre.

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  • The restoration of the Royal Palace in Budapest and the installation of the museum

    One of the most captivating elctnents in the Danube panorama of Budapest has been the hill of Ruda rising above the riverside with the former Royal Palace at its top (fig. 3 u). At the turn of the century the baroque palace was enlarged in the neo-baroque

    -- style, and this was the origin of- the well-known ensemble of buildings on the site of the nlediaeval royal palace. The latter is mentioned in the chronicles, and a few stones kept in the Municipal Museum are supposed to have come from it. The fact that little was seen of the imposing walls of the mediaeval castle, which are known from ellgravings of the I 5 th and 16th centuries, only added to this uncertainty,

    During the hostilities of 1944-1943 , all the buildings of the palace were consumed by fire and the ornamental gardens were laid waste. Tt was in the midst of smoulder- ing ruins that exploration work bcgan to locate the remains of the royal residence so fainous in the Middle Ages, of the Gothic New Palace of King Sigismund of Luxem- bourg (1387-1437)~ and the early Renaissance edifices of King Matthias Hunyadi (145 8-1490) which lent splendour to Buda, and which were described by noted trav- ellers such as George Brown or Pedro T a f h and called the Palace of the Golden Apple by Evliya Chelebi, the Turkish travelling chronicler.

    Archaeological cxcavations, under the direction of Lszl Gerevich, curator of the Municipal Museum, were started in 1946. The very first work revealed interesting details. There emerged thc southern great hall of the palace (fig. 29), the vaulted roonis of Tstvns tower and of Tstvns castle, the original thick walls of the big southern round bastion (fig, J I ) , and the remains of the Gothic chapel (fig. 32). The stones revealed numerous architectural details, and stoves, weapons and household implements were found in such quantities and varieties as were to be expected in what had been a royal residence for many centuries.

    The palace, erected at the southern peak of the hill of Buda, and the urban settle- ment occupying the rest of the plateau are relatively recent; only rather insignificant elemciits may be considered earlier than the middle of the 13th century. It was not

    by Lszl Ger6

    A

    37. KIRLYI PALOTA, Budapest. T a chapelle au cours des travaux de mise au jour (1950-1952). 37. Ihc chapel during excavation (1950-1952).

  • 38. KIR ir.vi PALOTA, Budapcst. Vue de la for- teresse du c6tC sud, durant la rkoccupation en 16x6. Gravi par Wciiing en 1686 daprts le dessin du gnral dartillerie Hallart. 38. The castle from the south, during the recap- &e in 1686. Etched by Welling from the drawing of 1686 by General Hallart.

    I . The architects in charge of the palace resto- ration were Istvin Janky from 1948 to 1958, and Lajos Hidasi from 1 9 5 8 . Restoratiun o i thc mediaeval parts was the rcsponsibility of this \\rite r .

    until after the Mongol invasion ( I 241-42) that King Bela IV of the House of ilrphd undertook to build castles in his country, since this was the only means for the Hun- garians, who were already scattered farmers, to resist the devastating onslaughts of the nomadic Mongol horsemen.

    Though showing the traces of many an alteration, the mediacval walls surrounding the palace and the settlement have fortunately survived to this day (fig. 33). They did not fall victim to the growth of the town. The ensemble of the palace building and the castle walls dominated the townscape of Budapest; consequently, the gaping smoky ruins with their empty windows prcsented a major problem for the restorers. Should this complex of buildings with their interiors completely destroyed be restor- ed at a formidable cost or should the ruins be left to stand as they were and bear witness to an insane war ? After envisaging numerous solutions, the government eventually decided on a full restoration of the palace ensemble; maintenance of the outer contours was prescribed, while the designers were given full discretion over the badly damaged interiors. Recommendations for the conservation, restoration and presentation of the mediaeval parts, considered to be of the highest monumental value, were accepted at the same time.

    The work started soon after, and the historical strata known from the chrnnicles began to come to light; the trial trenches revealed the great extent of the mediaeval palace. Excavations were followed by restoration in 1949; the two tasks were carried on in parallel until 1962, when excavations ceases. The restoration of the mediaeval elements was completed in 1966.

    The work carried out so far includes the exploration of the foundations and the reconstitution of the history of the entire complex of buildings, the restoration of the fasades of the baroque and neo-baroque buildings, and the internal restoration of the portion of thc palace nearest to the mediaeval parts. This section accommodates the Budapest History Museum whose exhibitions contribute to a knowledge of the history of the site. Outer reconstruction has more or less been confined to restoring the palaces appearance in the townscape. Somc of the excessive decoration and roof superstructures of the turn of the century were eliminated to give the restored buildings their aspect of the time of Maria Theresa (fig. 34). In the building facing thc Danube, work is under way for housing the National Gallery of Hungarian art. The northern wing will be the home of the Museum of Contemporary HistW, and the huge block facing Krisatinarvros- -designed between 1881 and 1891 by Mikls Ybl, the architect of the Opera House-will accommodate the National Library, which has until now been lodged in the building of the National Musem-

    The mediaeval castle has been covered with the bricks of the fashionable M- Rasten-Architektc/r in vogue at the end of the last century. To reveal the original

  • 39. L a Vierge a im IEnjant, sainte Barbe e t sainte Cuhrine, tableau du Matre de la ltgeiide de sainte Catherine. Grenade, Chapelle royale. Dtail. 39. I%e Virgin Alary with tbe ChiLd, St. Barbara and St. Catherine. Painting by the Master of thc Legend of St. Catherine. Granada, Royal Chapel. Detail.

    appcarance of the castle walls, all thcse had to be removed. The first difficulty we faced was a shortage in adequately skilled workers.

    Excavations carried out for a number of years after 1945 within the complex of Buda Castle and Palace, as well as in the mediaeval houses round the castle, have gradually led to the development of new protection methods, previously unknown in IIungary, but made possible by thc destruction which occurred during the war.

    For that matter, archaeological exploration and the search for documentary evid- ence ought to have preceded restoration work. For minor monuments this is the present practice. But in our case the task was so gigantic that restoration could not have been postponed fifteen years, the time required for archaeological excavations.2 Hence parallel operations were a necessity, and the architect and the archaeologist worked in close co-operation. (This has now become common practicc.)

    The construction of the royal residence was preceded by that of a watchtower (the Istvn tower) built to control the valley road at the foot of the hill. It was at this point that the road linking Augsburg and Vienna with Byzantinum crossed the

    4 0 . KIKLYI PALOTA, Budapest, A gauche: rccotistitution dun jardin seigneurial mditval; i droite : reconstitution dun clotre dans la cour mridionale du palais (1967). 4 0 . Left: reconstruction of a mediaeval noble- mans garden. Right: rcconstruction of a monas- tcry garden, in the southern courtyard of the palace (1967).

    2. During that time 31,000 cubic mctrcs of earth had to be removed inside the u d l s and another jo,ooo cubic metres outside.

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  • Danubc. There is not enough information to provide even an approximate idea of the buildings which stood near this tower during the period of the Angevin kings in the 14th century. The next Hungarian king, Sigismund, who elevated Buda to the status of an imperial residence when in 1410 he was elected Holy Roman Emperor, has this capital built up splendidly and surrounded it with strong walls. The final features of thc Buda palace complex were added by King Matthias Corvinius, with his Italian Renaissance constructions, which are of particular beauty.s

    According to our classification of castle construction, Buda is an example of the castlt: with inner towers and an irregular ground plan; it was strengthened by the addition of outer towers as early as the time of Sigismund.

    Nlien our first restoration plan was being drawn up, we concluded that the exist- ing walls provided a sufficient basis for restoration work. The mediaeval levels are indicated by a number of stone thresholds in sitzl.

    The plan was to present the rooms emerging during the excavation of the mediae- val palace-the chapel, the great hall, Istvns tower and Istvns castle at their orig- inal lcvels by removing the accretion of 6 to 7 metres of earth. Thus we were able to give a notion of the original appearance of the castle.

    The extent of this operation might arouse criticjsm. It should, however, be realized that the protection of monuments in Hungary is a special problem. What has remain- ed of the past is extremely fragmentary. A considerable proportion of our Roman, mediaeval and even Renaissance monuments have perished; some have only been brought to light by excavation in our day. Such limited material obliges us to exercise great care and to make efforts to present all the few existing fragments, to make them intelligible, and to ensure that the recent specifications of the Venice Charter are always strictly observed.

    Simple conservation measures have been takcn for a part of thc ruins excavated. The walls are crowned, for protection, by a thin layer o f mortar. Some of the methods of restoration work should be mentioned here :

    Thc ground floor of the great hall in thc palace of Sigismund had been spanned by a I)arrel-vault I I .Z metrcs wide. This supported the sexpartite cross-vault above, which rested on two central pillars. We reconstructed this space by anastylosis. What we could start from were the walls with the imposts in them; one window sur- v ivd i~ situ, along with many pieces of the stone vaults, carved and richly decorated Window-fran1es and details of seats. Making use of all these, we werc able to repro- ducc the entire lia11 in its original form.

    In order to prcvent overcrowding, a door has been provided for visitors in the Wall (acing the garden. Its temporary character is indicated by a wooden staircase for access.

    4 1 a, 6, c. KJRLYI PALOTA (T~RTENETI MUSEUM), Budapest. Partie reconstruitc du palais et a m h a g t e par le Mustc dhistoire de Budapest. Exposition, aprks restauration, dob- jets provcnant des fouilles (1968). qr a, h , c. Reconstructed section of the palace occupicd by the Budapest History Museum. Dis- play, after restoration, of objects found during the excavations (1968).

    5. According to Bonfini, the kings chronicler, Matthias surrounded himsclf with gardens, promenades, labyrinths, rare animals and birds, statues made out of bronze and marble, and splendid ceramics. The panorama of the palace and castle as seen from the Danube has been handed down to us by Master Wolgemuths drawing made about 1467 (fig. 3 ~ ) (Wekchronik, Nuremberg, 1493); the western side is shown in the wood-cuts of Erhard Schon from 1541. As to thc southern view, we took as a basis drawings made on the spot in 1686 by General Hallart. In conformity with the report of Paolo Giovio, wc have dated the fortifications, built to meet the Turkish threat, to the period 1134- 114.0, and regard Domenico da Bologna as their architect.

  • 4. This work was directed by the landscape architect Gusztv Kiss.

    5 . Information on the pattern of mediaeval gardens can be dcrived from the works of Flemish painters such as Jan Van Eyck, Rogcr Van der Weydcii, Dirk Bouts and their contem- porarics: the strip of flowers rutining round the foot of thc walls, the gcometrically arranged elc- vated flower beds, the solitary strips of grass, the arbour of roses, the trellis and the like. These gardens are laid around a centre which consists of a fountain or a pond (fig. 39).

    During the restoration of the great hall, the two balconies of the palace were dia- covered and rebuilt in their original position (fig. 36).

    Apart from the great hall, it was in the king's chapel (fig. pz) that the largcft nuniber of fragments were found. The chapel was mentioned for the first timc ill I 366. As in other mediaeval palace compounds, this chapel had a split-level structure; the use of the first floor was reserved to the royal family. Nothing was known of this chapel before 1945 because the remains had been covered by the earthwork of the terrace at the front of the baroque palace. When this mass of earth was removed, there emerged the walls of the chapel, the imposts of the vaults (fig. 37), the chance] arch, and rib fragments. From all these it was possible to reconstruct the lower space of the chapel authentically.

    Finally, following the order of restoration work, we should mention the gardens inside the castle walls. The area outside the walls has been arranged as a garden with promenades. Wc restored thc Turkish ccmetery shown in Hallart's drawing (fig. jt) and designed a parterre of flower beds in the narrow strip in front of the baroque p a l a ~ e . ~

    To re-create the historical atmosphere radiating from the mediaeval interiors and the museum exhibits, the reconstitution of a mediaeval garden was undertaken (fig. 40) . One object with the mediaeval gardens of Buda Castle was to draw attention to the variety in such gardens, and to their plants, to achieve a cultural purpose as well as to attract visitors.5

    One half of thc enclosed garden at the southern side is the reconstruction of a mediaeval monastery garden, the other half is that of a nobleman's garden. A Renais- sance fountain, adorned with the coats-of-arms of Matthias and Beatrice, has bccn preserved in the latter.

    A museum has been installed in the restored mediaeval parts of the palace where thc finds of thc excavations are presented in accordance with modern museum methods. The restored baroque section of the palace accommodates prints of Buda- pest and an exhibition of local history entitled A Thogsand Years OJ' the History oJ the Cupital. These exhibitions (fig. 4 2 a, b, c) complete the picture of the restoration of an architectural whole which symbolizes Hungary's past and which we felt bound to make known to all.

    I08

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